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The good, the bad and the implicit: a comprehensive approach to annotating explicit and implicit sentiment

Marjan Van de Kauter (UGent) , Bart Desmet (UGent) and Veronique Hoste (UGent)
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LT3
Abstract
We present a fine-grained scheme for the annotation of polar sentiment in text, that accounts for explicit sentiment (so-called private states), as well as implicit expressions of sentiment (polar facts). Polar expressions are annotated below sentence level and classified according to their subjectivity status. Additionally, they are linked to one or more targets with a specific polar orientation and intensity. Other components of the annotation scheme include source attribution and the identification and classification of expressions that modify polarity. In previous research, little attention has been given to implicit sentiment, which represents a substantial amount of the polar expressions encountered in our data. An English and Dutch corpus of financial newswire, consisting of over 45,000 words each, was annotated using our scheme. A subset of this corpus was used to conduct an inter-annotator agreement study, which demonstrated that the proposed scheme can be used to reliably annotate explicit and implicit sentiment in real-world textual data, making the created corpora a useful resource for sentiment analysis.
Keywords
sentiment analysis, EMOTIONS, corpus annotation, natural language processing, AGREEMENT, polarity

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Citation

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Chicago
Van de Kauter, Marjan, Bart Desmet, and Veronique Hoste. 2015. “The Good, the Bad and the Implicit: a Comprehensive Approach to Annotating Explicit and Implicit Sentiment.” Language Resources and Evaluation 49 (3): 685–720.
APA
Van de Kauter, M., Desmet, B., & Hoste, V. (2015). The good, the bad and the implicit: a comprehensive approach to annotating explicit and implicit sentiment. LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION, 49(3), 685–720.
Vancouver
1.
Van de Kauter M, Desmet B, Hoste V. The good, the bad and the implicit: a comprehensive approach to annotating explicit and implicit sentiment. LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION. Springer Netherlands; 2015;49(3):685–720.
MLA
Van de Kauter, Marjan, Bart Desmet, and Veronique Hoste. “The Good, the Bad and the Implicit: a Comprehensive Approach to Annotating Explicit and Implicit Sentiment.” LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION 49.3 (2015): 685–720. Print.
@article{5852316,
  abstract     = {We present a fine-grained scheme for the annotation of polar sentiment in text, that accounts for explicit sentiment (so-called private states), as well as implicit expressions of sentiment (polar facts). Polar expressions are annotated below sentence level and classified according to their subjectivity status. Additionally, they are linked to one or more targets with a specific polar orientation and intensity. Other components of the annotation scheme include source attribution and the identification and classification of expressions that modify polarity. In previous research, little attention has been given to implicit sentiment, which represents a substantial amount of the polar expressions encountered in our data. An English and Dutch corpus of financial newswire, consisting of over 45,000 words each, was annotated using our scheme. A subset of this corpus was used to conduct an inter-annotator agreement study, which demonstrated that the proposed scheme can be used to reliably annotate explicit and implicit sentiment in real-world textual data, making the created corpora a useful resource for sentiment analysis.},
  author       = {Van de Kauter, Marjan and Desmet, Bart and Hoste, Veronique},
  issn         = {1574-020X},
  journal      = {LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {685--720},
  publisher    = {Springer Netherlands},
  title        = {The good, the bad and the implicit: a comprehensive approach to annotating explicit and implicit sentiment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10579-015-9297-4},
  volume       = {49},
  year         = {2015},
}

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