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Do level and variability of systolic blood pressure predict arterial properties or vice versa?

(2014) JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION. 28(5). p.316-322
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Abstract
No longitudinal study addressed whether systolic blood pressure level (SBPL) or within-visit variability (SBPV) predict arterial properties or vice versa. In families randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we determined SBPL and SBPV from five consecutive blood pressure readings. The indexes of SBPV were variability independent of the mean, the difference between maximum and minimum SBPL, and average real variability. We measured carotid intima-media thickness and distensibility by ultrasound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by tonometry (SphygmoCor, version 8.2). Effect sizes were computed for 1-s.d. increments in the predictors, while accounting for covariables and family clusters. Among 1087 participants (50.4% women; mean age, 41.8 years), followed up for 2.55 years (median), higher SBPL predicted (P <= 0.019) higher carotid intima-media thickness (+15 mu m), lower carotid distensibility (-1.53 10(-3) kPa(-1)) and faster carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (+0.285 ms(-1)) at follow-up, whereas none of the SBPV indexes predicted the arterial traits at follow-up (P >= 0.11). In a subset of 713 participants, followed up for another 3.14 years, lower carotid distensibility predicted (P<0.01) higher SBPL (+2.57 mmHg), variability independent of the mean (+0.531 units), difference between maximum and minimum SBPL (+1.75 mmHg) and average real variability (+0.654 mmHg). Higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity predicted a 1.11 mmHg increase SBPL (P = 0.031). In conclusion, temporality and effect size suggest that SBPL but not within-visit SBPV cause arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness. Carotid stiffness, independent of SBPL, predicts within-visit SBPV, possibly because baroreflexes originating from a stiff carotid artery wall are impaired. Finally, stiffness of the aorta contributes to the age-related SBPL possibly, because faster returning reflected waves augments SBPL.
Keywords
blood pressure, intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness, population science, pulse wave velocity, 3 CANDIDATE GENES, CARDIOVAGAL BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY, EARLY CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS, INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS, FOLLOW-UP, PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE, CAUCASIAN POPULATION, VISIT VARIABILITY, AORTIC STIFFNESS, WHITE-POPULATION

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Chicago
Liu, Y-P, Y-M Gu, L Thijs, K Asayama, Y Jin, L Jacobs, T Kuznetsova, et al. 2014. “Do Level and Variability of Systolic Blood Pressure Predict Arterial Properties or Vice Versa?” Journal of Human Hypertension 28 (5): 316–322.
APA
Liu, Y.-P., Gu, Y.-M., Thijs, L., Asayama, K., Jin, Y., Jacobs, L., Kuznetsova, T., et al. (2014). Do level and variability of systolic blood pressure predict arterial properties or vice versa? JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION, 28(5), 316–322.
Vancouver
1.
Liu Y-P, Gu Y-M, Thijs L, Asayama K, Jin Y, Jacobs L, et al. Do level and variability of systolic blood pressure predict arterial properties or vice versa? JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION. 2014;28(5):316–22.
MLA
Liu, Y-P, Y-M Gu, L Thijs, et al. “Do Level and Variability of Systolic Blood Pressure Predict Arterial Properties or Vice Versa?” JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION 28.5 (2014): 316–322. Print.
@article{5851021,
  abstract     = {No longitudinal study addressed whether systolic blood pressure level (SBPL) or within-visit variability (SBPV) predict arterial properties or vice versa. In families randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we determined SBPL and SBPV from five consecutive blood pressure readings. The indexes of SBPV were variability independent of the mean, the difference between maximum and minimum SBPL, and average real variability. We measured carotid intima-media thickness and distensibility by ultrasound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by tonometry (SphygmoCor, version 8.2). Effect sizes were computed for 1-s.d. increments in the predictors, while accounting for covariables and family clusters. Among 1087 participants (50.4\% women; mean age, 41.8 years), followed up for 2.55 years (median), higher SBPL predicted (P {\textlangle}= 0.019) higher carotid intima-media thickness (+15 mu m), lower carotid distensibility (-1.53 10(-3) kPa(-1)) and faster carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (+0.285 ms(-1)) at follow-up, whereas none of the SBPV indexes predicted the arterial traits at follow-up (P {\textrangle}= 0.11). In a subset of 713 participants, followed up for another 3.14 years, lower carotid distensibility predicted (P{\textlangle}0.01) higher SBPL (+2.57 mmHg), variability independent of the mean (+0.531 units), difference between maximum and minimum SBPL (+1.75 mmHg) and average real variability (+0.654 mmHg). Higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity predicted a 1.11 mmHg increase SBPL (P = 0.031). In conclusion, temporality and effect size suggest that SBPL but not within-visit SBPV cause arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness. Carotid stiffness, independent of SBPL, predicts within-visit SBPV, possibly because baroreflexes originating from a stiff carotid artery wall are impaired. Finally, stiffness of the aorta contributes to the age-related SBPL possibly, because faster returning reflected waves augments SBPL.},
  author       = {Liu, Y-P and Gu, Y-M and Thijs, L and Asayama, K and Jin, Y and Jacobs, L and Kuznetsova, T and Verhamme, P and Van Bortel, Lucas and Struijker-Boudier, HAJ and Staessen, JA},
  issn         = {0950-9240},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {316--322},
  title        = {Do level and variability of systolic blood pressure predict arterial properties or vice versa?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2013.106},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2014},
}

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