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Verbal and non-verbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters

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Abstract
The present study explored the relation between language control and non-verbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task and Attention Network Test (ANT). All bilingual groups showed a smaller congruency effect in the Simon task than the monolingual group. They were also faster overall in the ANT. Furthermore, interpreters outperformed unbalanced, but not balanced, bilinguals in terms of overall accuracy on both tasks. In the ANT, the error congruency effect was significantly smaller for interpreters and balanced bilinguals. Using a measure of switching fluency in language production, this study also found direct evidence for a relation between language control and executive control. This relation was only observed in balanced bilinguals, where fluent switching was correlated with the Simon effect. These findings support the existence of a bilingual advantage and also indicate that different patterns of bilingual language use modulate the nature and extent of a cognitive control advantage in multilingual populations.
Keywords
LANGUAGE CONTROL, EXECUTIVE CONTROL, ATTENTIONAL NETWORKS, ENGLISH BILINGUALS, SIMON TASK, ADVANTAGE, INTERFERENCE, EFFICIENCY, EXPERTISE, CHILDREN, bilingualism, interpreting, language control, language switching, cognitive control

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Citation

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Chicago
Woumans, Evy, Evy Ceuleers, Lize Van der Linden, Arnaud Szmalec, and Wouter Duyck. 2015. “Verbal and Non-verbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters.” Journal of Experimental Psychology-learning Memory and Cognition 41 (5): 1579–1586.
APA
Woumans, E., Ceuleers, E., Van der Linden, L., Szmalec, A., & Duyck, W. (2015). Verbal and non-verbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION, 41(5), 1579–1586.
Vancouver
1.
Woumans E, Ceuleers E, Van der Linden L, Szmalec A, Duyck W. Verbal and non-verbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION. 2015;41(5):1579–86.
MLA
Woumans, Evy, Evy Ceuleers, Lize Van der Linden, et al. “Verbal and Non-verbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters.” JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION 41.5 (2015): 1579–1586. Print.
@article{5844818,
  abstract     = {The present study explored the relation between language control and non-verbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task and Attention Network Test (ANT). All bilingual groups showed a smaller congruency effect in the Simon task than the monolingual group. They were also faster overall in the ANT. Furthermore, interpreters outperformed unbalanced, but not balanced, bilinguals in terms of overall accuracy on both tasks. In the ANT, the error congruency effect was significantly smaller for interpreters and balanced bilinguals. Using a measure of switching fluency in language production, this study also found direct evidence for a relation between language control and executive control. This relation was only observed in balanced bilinguals, where fluent switching was correlated with the Simon effect. These findings support the existence of a bilingual advantage and also indicate that different patterns of bilingual language use modulate the nature and extent of a cognitive control advantage in multilingual populations.},
  author       = {Woumans, Evy and Ceuleers, Evy and Van der Linden, Lize and Szmalec, Arnaud and Duyck, Wouter},
  issn         = {0278-7393},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
  keywords     = {LANGUAGE CONTROL,EXECUTIVE CONTROL,ATTENTIONAL NETWORKS,ENGLISH BILINGUALS,SIMON TASK,ADVANTAGE,INTERFERENCE,EFFICIENCY,EXPERTISE,CHILDREN,bilingualism,interpreting,language control,language switching,cognitive control},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1579--1586},
  title        = {Verbal and non-verbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000107},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2015},
}

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