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Activation of the ergoreceptors in cardiac patients with and without heart failure

(2014) JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE. 20(10). p.747-754
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Abstract
Background: The presence of ergoreflex activity and its current relationship to hyperventilation and prognosis in cardiac patients is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated ergoreflex activity in cardiac patients with and without heart failure (CHF) as well as in healthy subjects, and we examined how ergoreceptor activity was related to a mortality risk score in CHF (MAGGIC). Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy subjects and 76 patients were included, among whom were 25 with ischemic heart disease (IHD), 24 with stable CHF, and 27 with unstable CHF. Ergoreflex activity was measured with a dynamic handgrip exercise, followed by post-handgrip regional circulatory occlusion (PH-RCO). Ergoreflex activity contributed significantly to ventilation (median [interquartile range] %V) in unstable CHF (81 [73-91] %V without PH-RCO, 92 [82-107] %V with PH-RCO, and 11 [6-20] difference in %V; P <.001) and was positively correlated with the MAGGIC risk score (Spearman p = 0.431; P = .002). No ergoreflex activity was observed in healthy subjects (-4 [-10 to 5] difference in %V), IHD (0 [-8 to 3] Diff in %V) and stable CHF (-3 [-11 to 6] difference in %V). Conclusions: Ergoreflex activity contributes to hyperventilation, but only in CHF patients with persistent symptoms, and is closely related to the MAGGIC risk score. Ergoreflex activity was not present in patients with IHD or stable CHIP, suggesting other reasons for the increased ventilatory drive in those patients.
Keywords
ventilation, Ergoreflex, MAGGIC risk score, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, healthy subjects, CARDIORESPIRATORY REFLEX CONTROL, PRESERVED EXERCISE TOLERANCE, CONVERTING ENZYME-INHIBITION, MUSCLE ERGOREFLEX, VENTILATORY RESPONSE, RESPIRATORY CONTROL, HYPERVENTILATION, METABORECEPTORS, PROSTAGLANDINS, OVERACTIVITY

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MLA
Pardaens, Sofie, Marc Vanderheyden, Patrick Calders, et al. “Activation of the Ergoreceptors in Cardiac Patients with and Without Heart Failure.” JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE 20.10 (2014): 747–754. Print.
APA
Pardaens, S., Vanderheyden, M., Calders, P., Willems, A.-M., Bartunek, J., & De Sutter, J. (2014). Activation of the ergoreceptors in cardiac patients with and without heart failure. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE, 20(10), 747–754.
Chicago author-date
Pardaens, Sofie, Marc Vanderheyden, Patrick Calders, Anne-Marie Willems, Jozef Bartunek, and Johan De Sutter. 2014. “Activation of the Ergoreceptors in Cardiac Patients with and Without Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure 20 (10): 747–754.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pardaens, Sofie, Marc Vanderheyden, Patrick Calders, Anne-Marie Willems, Jozef Bartunek, and Johan De Sutter. 2014. “Activation of the Ergoreceptors in Cardiac Patients with and Without Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure 20 (10): 747–754.
Vancouver
1.
Pardaens S, Vanderheyden M, Calders P, Willems A-M, Bartunek J, De Sutter J. Activation of the ergoreceptors in cardiac patients with and without heart failure. JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE. 2014;20(10):747–54.
IEEE
[1]
S. Pardaens, M. Vanderheyden, P. Calders, A.-M. Willems, J. Bartunek, and J. De Sutter, “Activation of the ergoreceptors in cardiac patients with and without heart failure,” JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 747–754, 2014.
@article{5843800,
  abstract     = {{Background: The presence of ergoreflex activity and its current relationship to hyperventilation and prognosis in cardiac patients is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated ergoreflex activity in cardiac patients with and without heart failure (CHF) as well as in healthy subjects, and we examined how ergoreceptor activity was related to a mortality risk score in CHF (MAGGIC). 
Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy subjects and 76 patients were included, among whom were 25 with ischemic heart disease (IHD), 24 with stable CHF, and 27 with unstable CHF. Ergoreflex activity was measured with a dynamic handgrip exercise, followed by post-handgrip regional circulatory occlusion (PH-RCO). Ergoreflex activity contributed significantly to ventilation (median [interquartile range] %V) in unstable CHF (81 [73-91] %V without PH-RCO, 92 [82-107] %V with PH-RCO, and 11 [6-20] difference in %V; P <.001) and was positively correlated with the MAGGIC risk score (Spearman p = 0.431; P = .002). No ergoreflex activity was observed in healthy subjects (-4 [-10 to 5] difference in %V), IHD (0 [-8 to 3] Diff in %V) and stable CHF (-3 [-11 to 6] difference in %V). 
Conclusions: Ergoreflex activity contributes to hyperventilation, but only in CHF patients with persistent symptoms, and is closely related to the MAGGIC risk score. Ergoreflex activity was not present in patients with IHD or stable CHIP, suggesting other reasons for the increased ventilatory drive in those patients.}},
  author       = {{Pardaens, Sofie and Vanderheyden, Marc and Calders, Patrick and Willems, Anne-Marie and Bartunek, Jozef and De Sutter, Johan}},
  issn         = {{1071-9164}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE}},
  keywords     = {{ventilation,Ergoreflex,MAGGIC risk score,heart failure,ischemic heart disease,healthy subjects,CARDIORESPIRATORY REFLEX CONTROL,PRESERVED EXERCISE TOLERANCE,CONVERTING ENZYME-INHIBITION,MUSCLE ERGOREFLEX,VENTILATORY RESPONSE,RESPIRATORY CONTROL,HYPERVENTILATION,METABORECEPTORS,PROSTAGLANDINS,OVERACTIVITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{10}},
  pages        = {{747--754}},
  title        = {{Activation of the ergoreceptors in cardiac patients with and without heart failure}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfai1.2014.07.006}},
  volume       = {{20}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}

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