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Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 2: opioids and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists

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Abstract
Objective: To review the literature with regard to the use of different intravenous agents as supplements to inhalational anaesthesia in horses. The Part 2 of this review will focus in the use of opioids and (2)-agonists. Databases used: Pubmed and Web of Science. Search terms: horse, inhalant anaesthesia, balanced anaesthesia, partial intravenous anaesthesia, opioids, morphine, pethidine, butorphanol, methadone, fentanyl, alfentanil, remifentanil, sufentanil, xylazine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine. Conclusions: Different drugs and their combinations can be administered systemically in anaesthetized horses aiming to reduce the amount of the volatile agent while improving the recovery qualities and providing a multimodal analgesic approach. However, full studies as to whether these techniques improve cardiopulmonary status are not always available and potential disadvantages should also be considered.
Keywords
inhalation anaesthesia, RECOVERY QUALITY, intravenous drugs, MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION, CONSTANT-RATE INFUSION, ISOFLURANE-ANESTHETIZED HORSES, opioids, (2)-agonists, ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR SUBTYPES, equine, GENERAL-ANESTHESIA, CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION, CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION, ALPHA(2)-ADRENOCEPTOR SUBTYPES, PERIOPERATIVE MORPHINE

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Citation

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Chicago
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2015. “Partial Intravenous Anaesthesia in the Horse: a Review of Intravenous Agents Used to Supplement Equine Inhalation Anaesthesia, Part 2: Opioids and Alpha-2 Adrenoceptor Agonists.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 42 (1): 1–16.
APA
Gozalo Marcilla, M., Gasthuys, F., & Schauvliege, S. (2015). Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 2: opioids and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 42(1), 1–16.
Vancouver
1.
Gozalo Marcilla M, Gasthuys F, Schauvliege S. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 2: opioids and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2015;42(1):1–16.
MLA
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. “Partial Intravenous Anaesthesia in the Horse: a Review of Intravenous Agents Used to Supplement Equine Inhalation Anaesthesia, Part 2: Opioids and Alpha-2 Adrenoceptor Agonists.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 42.1 (2015): 1–16. Print.
@article{5840529,
  abstract     = {Objective: To review the literature with regard to the use of different intravenous agents as supplements to inhalational anaesthesia in horses. The Part 2 of this review will focus in the use of opioids and (2)-agonists. 
Databases used: Pubmed and Web of Science.
Search terms: horse, inhalant anaesthesia, balanced anaesthesia, partial intravenous anaesthesia, opioids, morphine, pethidine, butorphanol, methadone, fentanyl, alfentanil, remifentanil, sufentanil, xylazine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine. 
Conclusions: Different drugs and their combinations can be administered systemically in anaesthetized horses aiming to reduce the amount of the volatile agent while improving the recovery qualities and providing a multimodal analgesic approach. However, full studies as to whether these techniques improve cardiopulmonary status are not always available and potential disadvantages should also be considered.},
  author       = {Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel and Gasthuys, Frank and Schauvliege, Stijn},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keywords     = {inhalation anaesthesia,RECOVERY QUALITY,intravenous drugs,MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION,CONSTANT-RATE INFUSION,ISOFLURANE-ANESTHETIZED HORSES,opioids,(2)-agonists,ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR SUBTYPES,equine,GENERAL-ANESTHESIA,CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION,CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION,ALPHA(2)-ADRENOCEPTOR SUBTYPES,PERIOPERATIVE MORPHINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {1--16},
  title        = {Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 2: opioids and alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12196},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2015},
}

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