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Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 1: lidocaine and ketamine

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Abstract
Objective: To review the literature with regard to the use of different intravenous agents as supplements to inhalational anaesthesia in horses. These drugs include lidocaine, ketamine, opioids and 2-agonists. The Part 1 of this review will focus in the use of lidocaine and ketamine. Databases used: Pubmed & Web of Science. Search terms: horse, inhalant anaesthesia, balanced anaesthesia, partial intravenous anaesthesia, lidocaine, ketamine. Conclusions: Different drugs and their combinations can be administered systemically in anaesthetized horses, with the aim of reducing the amount of the volatile agent whilst improving the recovery qualities and providing a multimodal analgesic approach. However, full studies as to whether these techniques improve cardiopulmonary status are not always available and potential disadvantages should also be considered.
Keywords
equine, intravenous drugs, inhalation anaesthesia, METHYL-D-ASPARTATE, LOCAL-ANESTHETICS, SHETLAND PONIES, CONSTANT RATE INFUSION, lidocaine, ketamine, GENERAL-ANESTHESIA, STEREOSELECTIVE PHARMACOKINETICS, BALANCED ANESTHESIA, MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION, RACEMIC KETAMINE, S-KETAMINE

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Citation

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MLA
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. “Partial Intravenous Anaesthesia in the Horse: a Review of Intravenous Agents Used to Supplement Equine Inhalation Anaesthesia, Part 1: Lidocaine and Ketamine.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 41.4 (2014): 335–345. Print.
APA
Gozalo Marcilla, M., Gasthuys, F., & Schauvliege, S. (2014). Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 1: lidocaine and ketamine. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 41(4), 335–345.
Chicago author-date
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2014. “Partial Intravenous Anaesthesia in the Horse: a Review of Intravenous Agents Used to Supplement Equine Inhalation Anaesthesia, Part 1: Lidocaine and Ketamine.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 41 (4): 335–345.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Frank Gasthuys, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2014. “Partial Intravenous Anaesthesia in the Horse: a Review of Intravenous Agents Used to Supplement Equine Inhalation Anaesthesia, Part 1: Lidocaine and Ketamine.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 41 (4): 335–345.
Vancouver
1.
Gozalo Marcilla M, Gasthuys F, Schauvliege S. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 1: lidocaine and ketamine. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2014;41(4):335–45.
IEEE
[1]
M. Gozalo Marcilla, F. Gasthuys, and S. Schauvliege, “Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 1: lidocaine and ketamine,” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 335–345, 2014.
@article{5840391,
  abstract     = {Objective: To review the literature with regard to the use of different intravenous agents as supplements to inhalational anaesthesia in horses. These drugs include lidocaine, ketamine, opioids and 2-agonists. The Part 1 of this review will focus in the use of lidocaine and ketamine.
Databases used: Pubmed & Web of Science.
Search terms: horse, inhalant anaesthesia, balanced anaesthesia, partial intravenous anaesthesia, lidocaine, ketamine.
Conclusions: Different drugs and their combinations can be administered systemically in anaesthetized horses, with the aim of reducing the amount of the volatile agent whilst improving the recovery qualities and providing a multimodal analgesic approach. However, full studies as to whether these techniques improve cardiopulmonary status are not always available and potential disadvantages should also be considered.},
  author       = {Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel and Gasthuys, Frank and Schauvliege, Stijn},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keywords     = {equine,intravenous drugs,inhalation anaesthesia,METHYL-D-ASPARTATE,LOCAL-ANESTHETICS,SHETLAND PONIES,CONSTANT RATE INFUSION,lidocaine,ketamine,GENERAL-ANESTHESIA,STEREOSELECTIVE PHARMACOKINETICS,BALANCED ANESTHESIA,MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION,RACEMIC KETAMINE,S-KETAMINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {335--345},
  title        = {Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia, part 1: lidocaine and ketamine},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12179},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2014},
}

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