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Diagnostic value of active protraction and retraction for sternoclavicular joint pain

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Abstract
Background: Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) arthropathy is an uncommon cause of mechanical pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of two active clinical tests for localizing the sternoclavicular joint as the source of mechanical pain. Methods: All patients between June 2011 and October 2013 that visited the orthopedic departments of three hospitals with atraumatic pain in the area of the SC joint were evaluated. Local swelling, pain at palpation, pain during arm elevation and two newly described tests (pain during active scapular protraction and retraction) were evaluated. CT images were evaluated. The patients were then divided into two groups according to whether they had a >= 50% decrease in pain following the SCJ injection. Sensitivity and specificity for local swelling, the four clinical tests and CT-scan were measured. Results: Forty eight patients were included in this study and SC joint pain was confirmed in 44. The tests with highest sensitivity were pain on palpation, (93% sensitivity) and pain during active scapular protraction (86%). CT-scan showed a sensitivity of 84%. Local swelling showed a high specificity (100%). Conclusion: Pain at the SCJ during active scapular protraction is a good clinical diagnostic tool for SC arthropathy.
Keywords
Scapular protraction, Specificity, Sensitivity, Arthopathy, Sternoclavicular, Clinical test, TESTS, ARTHRITIS, STERNO-CLAVICULAR JOINT, OSTEOARTHRITIS, DISEASE

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Chicago
Van Tongel, Alexander, Anne Karelse, Bart Berghs, Tom Van Isacker, and Lieven De Wilde. 2014. “Diagnostic Value of Active Protraction and Retraction for Sternoclavicular Joint Pain.” Bmc Musculoskeletal Disorders 15.
APA
Van Tongel, A., Karelse, A., Berghs, B., Van Isacker, T., & De Wilde, L. (2014). Diagnostic value of active protraction and retraction for sternoclavicular joint pain. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, 15.
Vancouver
1.
Van Tongel A, Karelse A, Berghs B, Van Isacker T, De Wilde L. Diagnostic value of active protraction and retraction for sternoclavicular joint pain. BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS. 2014;15.
MLA
Van Tongel, Alexander, Anne Karelse, Bart Berghs, et al. “Diagnostic Value of Active Protraction and Retraction for Sternoclavicular Joint Pain.” BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS 15 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5838152,
  abstract     = {Background: Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) arthropathy is an uncommon cause of mechanical pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of two active clinical tests for localizing the sternoclavicular joint as the source of mechanical pain. 
Methods: All patients between June 2011 and October 2013 that visited the orthopedic departments of three hospitals with atraumatic pain in the area of the SC joint were evaluated. Local swelling, pain at palpation, pain during arm elevation and two newly described tests (pain during active scapular protraction and retraction) were evaluated. CT images were evaluated. The patients were then divided into two groups according to whether they had a {\textrangle}= 50\% decrease in pain following the SCJ injection. Sensitivity and specificity for local swelling, the four clinical tests and CT-scan were measured. 
Results: Forty eight patients were included in this study and SC joint pain was confirmed in 44. The tests with highest sensitivity were pain on palpation, (93\% sensitivity) and pain during active scapular protraction (86\%). CT-scan showed a sensitivity of 84\%. Local swelling showed a high specificity (100\%). 
Conclusion: Pain at the SCJ during active scapular protraction is a good clinical diagnostic tool for SC arthropathy.},
  articleno    = {421},
  author       = {Van Tongel, Alexander and Karelse, Anne and Berghs, Bart and Van Isacker, Tom and De Wilde, Lieven},
  issn         = {1471-2474},
  journal      = {BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {Diagnostic value of active protraction and retraction for sternoclavicular joint pain},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-15-421},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2014},
}

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