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Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study

(2014) TOXICOLOGY LETTERS. 231(3). p.344-351
Author
Organization
Abstract
Background: On Saturday May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in the village of Wetteren (Belgium) and caused a leak of acrylonitrile (ACN). Objectives: To assess the human exposure to acrylonitrile in the local population with the highest suspected exposure. Methods: Between May 18-25, 242 residents participated in the study. N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV), a biomarker that is highly specific for ACN exposure, was measured in the blood. To account for potential influence by smoking, cotinine was determined in the urine. Participants also filled in a short questionnaire. Results: In the evacuated zone, 37.3% of the non-smokers and 40.0% of the smokers had CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively, at the time of the train accident. Spatial mapping of the CEV concentrations depending on the residential address showed a distribution pattern following the sewage system. Discussion and conclusion: The train derailment resulted in a highly atypical sequence-of-events. In addition to exposure in the direct vicinity of the site of the train derailment, exposure also occurred via the sewage system, into which acrylonitrile had entered shortly after the accident.
Keywords
Acrylonitrile, Human biomonitoring, Sewage, General population, Accident, N-2-cyanoethylvaline, TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS, MERCAPTURIC ACIDS, COTININE, QUANTIFICATION, URINE

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Citation

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MLA
De Smedt, T, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, et al. “Acrylonitrile Exposure in the General Population Following a Major Train Accident in Belgium: a Human Biomonitoring Study.” TOXICOLOGY LETTERS 231.3 (2014): 344–351. Print.
APA
De Smedt, T, De Cremer, K., Vleminckx, C., Fierens, S., Mertens, B., Van Overmeire, I., Bader, M., et al. (2014). Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS, 231(3), 344–351.
Chicago author-date
De Smedt, T, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, S Fierens, B Mertens, I Van Overmeire, M Bader, et al. 2014. “Acrylonitrile Exposure in the General Population Following a Major Train Accident in Belgium: a Human Biomonitoring Study.” Toxicology Letters 231 (3): 344–351.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Smedt, T, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, S Fierens, B Mertens, I Van Overmeire, M Bader, Peter De Paepe, T Goen, B Nemery, T Schettgen, Christophe Stove, H Van Oyen, J Van Loco, and A Van Nieuwenhuyse. 2014. “Acrylonitrile Exposure in the General Population Following a Major Train Accident in Belgium: a Human Biomonitoring Study.” Toxicology Letters 231 (3): 344–351.
Vancouver
1.
De Smedt T, De Cremer K, Vleminckx C, Fierens S, Mertens B, Van Overmeire I, et al. Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study. TOXICOLOGY LETTERS. 2014;231(3):344–51.
IEEE
[1]
T. De Smedt et al., “Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study,” TOXICOLOGY LETTERS, vol. 231, no. 3, pp. 344–351, 2014.
@article{5831419,
  abstract     = {Background: On Saturday May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in the village of Wetteren (Belgium) and caused a leak of acrylonitrile (ACN). 
Objectives: To assess the human exposure to acrylonitrile in the local population with the highest suspected exposure. 
Methods: Between May 18-25, 242 residents participated in the study. N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV), a biomarker that is highly specific for ACN exposure, was measured in the blood. To account for potential influence by smoking, cotinine was determined in the urine. Participants also filled in a short questionnaire. 
Results: In the evacuated zone, 37.3% of the non-smokers and 40.0% of the smokers had CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively, at the time of the train accident. Spatial mapping of the CEV concentrations depending on the residential address showed a distribution pattern following the sewage system. 
Discussion and conclusion: The train derailment resulted in a highly atypical sequence-of-events. In addition to exposure in the direct vicinity of the site of the train derailment, exposure also occurred via the sewage system, into which acrylonitrile had entered shortly after the accident.},
  author       = {De Smedt, T and De Cremer, K and Vleminckx, C and Fierens, S and Mertens, B and Van Overmeire, I and Bader, M and De Paepe, Peter and Goen, T and Nemery, B and Schettgen, T and Stove, Christophe and Van Oyen, H and Van Loco, J and Van Nieuwenhuyse, A},
  issn         = {0378-4274},
  journal      = {TOXICOLOGY LETTERS},
  keywords     = {Acrylonitrile,Human biomonitoring,Sewage,General population,Accident,N-2-cyanoethylvaline,TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY,LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS,MERCAPTURIC ACIDS,COTININE,QUANTIFICATION,URINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {344--351},
  title        = {Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.09.009},
  volume       = {231},
  year         = {2014},
}

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