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Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato

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Abstract
Background: Solanum lycopersicum or tomato is extensively studied with respect to the ethylene metabolism during climacteric ripening, focusing almost exclusively on fruit pericarp. In this work the ethylene biosynthesis pathway was examined in all major tomato fruit tissues: pericarp, septa, columella, placenta, locular gel and seeds. The tissue specific ethylene production rate was measured throughout fruit development, climacteric ripening and postharvest storage. All ethylene intermediate metabolites (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), malonyl-ACC (MACC) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)) and enzyme activities (ACC-oxidase (ACO) and ACC-synthase (ACS)) were assessed. Results: All tissues showed a similar climacteric pattern in ethylene productions, but with a different amplitude. Profound differences were found between tissue types at the metabolic and enzymatic level. The pericarp tissue produced the highest amount of ethylene, but showed only a low ACC content and limited ACS activity, while the locular gel accumulated a lot of ACC, MACC and SAM and showed only limited ACO and ACS activity. Central tissues (septa, columella and placenta) showed a strong accumulation of ACC and MACC. These differences indicate that the ethylene biosynthesis pathway is organized and regulated in a tissue specific way. The possible role of inter- and intra-tissue transport is discussed to explain these discrepancies. Furthermore, the antagonistic relation between ACO and E8, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibiting protein, was shown to be tissue specific and developmentally regulated. In addition, ethylene inhibition by E8 is not achieved by a direct interaction between ACO and E8, as previously suggested in literature. Conclusions: The Ethylene biosynthesis pathway and E8 show a tissue specific and developmental differentiation throughout tomato fruit development and ripening.
Keywords
Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, Ethylene biosynthesis, Tissues, Pericarp, Septa, Columella, Placenta, Seeds, Locular gel, E8, ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID, 1-(MALONYLAMINO)CYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID, FRUIT-DEVELOPMENT, PHLOEM TRANSPORT, GENE-EXPRESSION, HIGHER-PLANTS, CELLS, SPECIALIZATION, IDENTIFICATION

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MLA
Van de Poel, Bram et al. “Tissue Specific Analysis Reveals a Differential Organization and Regulation of Both Ethylene Biosynthesis and E8 During Climacteric Ripening of Tomato.” BMC PLANT BIOLOGY 14 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
Van de Poel, B., Vandenzavel, N., Smet, C., Nicolay, T., Bulens, I., Mellidou, I., Vandoninck, S., et al. (2014). Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 14.
Chicago author-date
Van de Poel, Bram, Nick Vandenzavel, Cindy Smet, Toon Nicolay, Inge Bulens, Ifigeneia Mellidou, Sandy Vandoninck, et al. 2014. “Tissue Specific Analysis Reveals a Differential Organization and Regulation of Both Ethylene Biosynthesis and E8 During Climacteric Ripening of Tomato.” Bmc Plant Biology 14.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van de Poel, Bram, Nick Vandenzavel, Cindy Smet, Toon Nicolay, Inge Bulens, Ifigeneia Mellidou, Sandy Vandoninck, Maarten LATM Hertog, Rita Derua, Stijn Spaepen, Jos Vanderleyden, Etienne Waelkens, Maurice P De Proft, Bart M Nicolai, and Annemie H Geeraerd. 2014. “Tissue Specific Analysis Reveals a Differential Organization and Regulation of Both Ethylene Biosynthesis and E8 During Climacteric Ripening of Tomato.” Bmc Plant Biology 14.
Vancouver
1.
Van de Poel B, Vandenzavel N, Smet C, Nicolay T, Bulens I, Mellidou I, et al. Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. 2014;14.
IEEE
[1]
B. Van de Poel et al., “Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato,” BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, vol. 14, 2014.
@article{5820218,
  abstract     = {Background: Solanum lycopersicum or tomato is extensively studied with respect to the ethylene metabolism during climacteric ripening, focusing almost exclusively on fruit pericarp. In this work the ethylene biosynthesis pathway was examined in all major tomato fruit tissues: pericarp, septa, columella, placenta, locular gel and seeds. The tissue specific ethylene production rate was measured throughout fruit development, climacteric ripening and postharvest storage. All ethylene intermediate metabolites (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), malonyl-ACC (MACC) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)) and enzyme activities (ACC-oxidase (ACO) and ACC-synthase (ACS)) were assessed. 
Results: All tissues showed a similar climacteric pattern in ethylene productions, but with a different amplitude. Profound differences were found between tissue types at the metabolic and enzymatic level. The pericarp tissue produced the highest amount of ethylene, but showed only a low ACC content and limited ACS activity, while the locular gel accumulated a lot of ACC, MACC and SAM and showed only limited ACO and ACS activity. Central tissues (septa, columella and placenta) showed a strong accumulation of ACC and MACC. These differences indicate that the ethylene biosynthesis pathway is organized and regulated in a tissue specific way. The possible role of inter- and intra-tissue transport is discussed to explain these discrepancies. Furthermore, the antagonistic relation between ACO and E8, an ethylene biosynthesis inhibiting protein, was shown to be tissue specific and developmentally regulated. In addition, ethylene inhibition by E8 is not achieved by a direct interaction between ACO and E8, as previously suggested in literature. 
Conclusions: The Ethylene biosynthesis pathway and E8 show a tissue specific and developmental differentiation throughout tomato fruit development and ripening.},
  articleno    = {11},
  author       = {Van de Poel, Bram and Vandenzavel, Nick and Smet, Cindy and Nicolay, Toon and Bulens, Inge and Mellidou, Ifigeneia and Vandoninck, Sandy and Hertog, Maarten LATM and Derua, Rita and Spaepen, Stijn and Vanderleyden, Jos and Waelkens, Etienne and De Proft, Maurice P and Nicolai, Bart M and Geeraerd, Annemie H},
  issn         = {1471-2229},
  journal      = {BMC PLANT BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Tomato,Solanum lycopersicum,Ethylene biosynthesis,Tissues,Pericarp,Septa,Columella,Placenta,Seeds,Locular gel,E8,ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE,1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID,1-(MALONYLAMINO)CYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID,FRUIT-DEVELOPMENT,PHLOEM TRANSPORT,GENE-EXPRESSION,HIGHER-PLANTS,CELLS,SPECIALIZATION,IDENTIFICATION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Tissue specific analysis reveals a differential organization and regulation of both ethylene biosynthesis and E8 during climacteric ripening of tomato},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-14-11},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

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