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Open your eyes for prediction errors

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Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that autonomic arousal is increased following correct task performance on a difficult, relative to an easy, task. Here, we hypothesized that this arousal response reflects the (relative) surprise of correct performance following a difficult versus an easy task. Following this line of reasoning, we would expect to find a reversed pattern following erroneous responses, because errors are less expected during an easy than during a difficult task. To test this, participants performed a flanker task while pupil size was measured online. As predicted, the results demonstrated that pupil size was larger following difficult (incongruent) correct trials than following easy (congruent) correct trials, but smaller following difficult than following easy incorrect trials. Moreover, participants with larger congruency effects, and hence a larger difference in outcome expectancies between the two trial types, showed larger differences in pupil size after both correct and incorrect responses, further corroborating the idea that pupil size increased as a measure of performance prediction errors.
Keywords
Prediction error, Cognitive contro, Performance, monitoring, Pupil dilation, Norephinephrine, PUPIL DIAMETER, COGNITIVE CONTROL, DECISION-MAKING, ANTERIOR CINGULATE, ADAPTIVE GAIN, REWARD, TASK, PERFORMANCE, DOPAMINE, CORTEX

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Braem, Senne, Ena Coenen, Klaas Bombeke, Marlies van Bochove, and Wim Notebaert. 2015. “Open Your Eyes for Prediction Errors.” Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 15 (2): 374–380.
APA
Braem, S., Coenen, E., Bombeke, K., van Bochove, M., & Notebaert, W. (2015). Open your eyes for prediction errors. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE, 15(2), 374–380.
Vancouver
1.
Braem S, Coenen E, Bombeke K, van Bochove M, Notebaert W. Open your eyes for prediction errors. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. Springer US; 2015;15(2):374–80.
MLA
Braem, Senne, Ena Coenen, Klaas Bombeke, et al. “Open Your Eyes for Prediction Errors.” COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE 15.2 (2015): 374–380. Print.
@article{5814767,
  abstract     = {Previous studies have demonstrated that autonomic arousal is increased following correct task performance on a difficult, relative to an easy, task. Here, we hypothesized that this arousal response reflects the (relative) surprise of correct performance following a difficult versus an easy task. Following this line of reasoning, we would expect to find a reversed pattern following erroneous responses, because errors are less expected during an easy than during a difficult task. To test this, participants performed a flanker task while pupil size was measured online. As predicted, the results demonstrated that pupil size was larger following difficult (incongruent) correct trials than following easy (congruent) correct trials, but smaller following difficult than following easy incorrect trials. Moreover, participants with larger congruency effects, and hence a larger difference in outcome expectancies between the two trial types, showed larger differences in pupil size after both correct and incorrect responses, further corroborating the idea that pupil size increased as a measure of performance prediction errors.},
  author       = {Braem, Senne and Coenen, Ena and Bombeke, Klaas and van Bochove, Marlies and Notebaert, Wim},
  issn         = {1530-7026},
  journal      = {COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE \& BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {374--380},
  publisher    = {Springer US},
  title        = {Open your eyes for prediction errors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0333-4},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2015},
}

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