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Erosion of the medial compartment of the canine elbow: occurrence, diagnosis and currently available treatment options

Eva Coppieters (UGent) , Ingrid Gielen (UGent) , Geert Verhoeven (UGent) , Delphine Van Vynckt (UGent) and Bernadette Van Ryssen (UGent)
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Abstract
Erosion of the medial compartment of the elbow joint refers to full thickness cartilage loss with exposure of the subchondral bone (modified Outerbridge grades 4-5) of the medial part of the humeral condyle (MHC) and the corresponding ulnar contact area. This finding may appear in the absence of an osteochondral fragment or a cartilage flap, or in combination with fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (MCP) or osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the MHC. With regard to the prognosis, it is important to diagnose these severe erosions. Imaging of cartilage lesions by means of radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is challenging in dogs. In contrast, direct arthroscopic inspection provides detailed information about the cartilage. The treatment of these severe erosions is difficult because of the limited regenerative capacity of cartilage and presumed mechanical or physical triggering factors. Several conservative and surgical treatment methods have been proposed to treat elbows with severe cartilage defects. However, due to irreversible loss of cartilage, the prognosis in these cases remains guarded.
Keywords
cartilage, Elbow, arthroscopy, erosion, medial compartment, COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ARTHROGRAPHY, FRAGMENTED CORONOID PROCESS, SLIDING HUMERAL OSTEOTOMY, ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE, CONTACT MECHANICS, EX-VIVO, OSTEOCHONDRITIS-DISSECANS, ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT, ARTHROPLASTY SYSTEM, CLINICAL-EXPERIENCE

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Chicago
Coppieters, Eva, Ingrid Gielen, Geert Verhoeven, Delphine Van Vynckt, and Bernadette Van Ryssen. 2015. “Erosion of the Medial Compartment of the Canine Elbow: Occurrence, Diagnosis and Currently Available Treatment Options.” Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 28 (1): 9–18.
APA
Coppieters, E., Gielen, I., Verhoeven, G., Van Vynckt, D., & Van Ryssen, B. (2015). Erosion of the medial compartment of the canine elbow: occurrence, diagnosis and currently available treatment options. VETERINARY AND COMPARATIVE ORTHOPAEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY, 28(1), 9–18.
Vancouver
1.
Coppieters E, Gielen I, Verhoeven G, Van Vynckt D, Van Ryssen B. Erosion of the medial compartment of the canine elbow: occurrence, diagnosis and currently available treatment options. VETERINARY AND COMPARATIVE ORTHOPAEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY. 2015;28(1):9–18.
MLA
Coppieters, Eva, Ingrid Gielen, Geert Verhoeven, et al. “Erosion of the Medial Compartment of the Canine Elbow: Occurrence, Diagnosis and Currently Available Treatment Options.” VETERINARY AND COMPARATIVE ORTHOPAEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY 28.1 (2015): 9–18. Print.
@article{5812297,
  abstract     = {Erosion of the medial compartment of the elbow joint refers to full thickness cartilage loss with exposure of the subchondral bone (modified Outerbridge grades 4-5) of the medial part of the humeral condyle (MHC) and the corresponding ulnar contact area. This finding may appear in the absence of an osteochondral fragment or a cartilage flap, or in combination with fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (MCP) or osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the MHC. 
With regard to the prognosis, it is important to diagnose these severe erosions. Imaging of cartilage lesions by means of radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is challenging in dogs. In contrast, direct arthroscopic inspection provides detailed information about the cartilage. 
The treatment of these severe erosions is difficult because of the limited regenerative capacity of cartilage and presumed mechanical or physical triggering factors. Several conservative and surgical treatment methods have been proposed to treat elbows with severe cartilage defects. However, due to irreversible loss of cartilage, the prognosis in these cases remains guarded.},
  author       = {Coppieters, Eva and Gielen, Ingrid and Verhoeven, Geert and Van Vynckt, Delphine and Van Ryssen, Bernadette},
  issn         = {0932-0814},
  journal      = {VETERINARY AND COMPARATIVE ORTHOPAEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY},
  keyword      = {cartilage,Elbow,arthroscopy,erosion,medial compartment,COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ARTHROGRAPHY,FRAGMENTED CORONOID PROCESS,SLIDING HUMERAL OSTEOTOMY,ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE,CONTACT MECHANICS,EX-VIVO,OSTEOCHONDRITIS-DISSECANS,ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT,ARTHROPLASTY SYSTEM,CLINICAL-EXPERIENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {9--18},
  title        = {Erosion of the medial compartment of the canine elbow: occurrence, diagnosis and currently available treatment options},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3415/VCOT-13-12-0147},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2015},
}

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