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Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study

Jonas Everaert (UGent) and Ernst Koster (UGent)
(2015) EMOTION. 15(5). p.539-543
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Abstract
Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retrieval cues. The remember/know/new procedure was used to classify memories as recollection-based or familiarity-based, and gaze behavior was monitored throughout the task to measure attentional allocation. We found that a bias in sustained attention during recollection-based, but not familiarity-based, retrieval predicted subsequent memory bias toward positive versus negative material following encoding. Thus, during emotional memory retrieval, attention affects controlled forms of retrieval (i.e., recollection) but does not modulate relatively automatic, familiarity-based retrieval. These findings enhance understanding of how distinct components of attention regulate the emotional content of memories. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation are discussed.
Keywords
DIVIDED ATTENTION, RECOGNITION MEMORY, DEPRESSION, RECOLLECTION, DIRECTIONS, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIENCE, BIASES, WORDS, attention, memory, retrieval, recollection, familiarity

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Citation

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MLA
Everaert, Jonas, and Ernst Koster. “Interactions Among Emotional Attention, Encoding, and Retrieval of Ambiguous Information: An Eye-tracking Study.” EMOTION 15.5 (2015): 539–543. Print.
APA
Everaert, Jonas, & Koster, E. (2015). Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study. EMOTION, 15(5), 539–543.
Chicago author-date
Everaert, Jonas, and Ernst Koster. 2015. “Interactions Among Emotional Attention, Encoding, and Retrieval of Ambiguous Information: An Eye-tracking Study.” Emotion 15 (5): 539–543.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Everaert, Jonas, and Ernst Koster. 2015. “Interactions Among Emotional Attention, Encoding, and Retrieval of Ambiguous Information: An Eye-tracking Study.” Emotion 15 (5): 539–543.
Vancouver
1.
Everaert J, Koster E. Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study. EMOTION. 2015;15(5):539–43.
IEEE
[1]
J. Everaert and E. Koster, “Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study,” EMOTION, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 539–543, 2015.
@article{5812264,
  abstract     = {Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retrieval cues. The remember/know/new procedure was used to classify memories as recollection-based or familiarity-based, and gaze behavior was monitored throughout the task to measure attentional allocation. We found that a bias in sustained attention during recollection-based, but not familiarity-based, retrieval predicted subsequent memory bias toward positive versus negative material following encoding. Thus, during emotional memory retrieval, attention affects controlled forms of retrieval (i.e., recollection) but does not modulate relatively automatic, familiarity-based retrieval. These findings enhance understanding of how distinct components of attention regulate the emotional content of memories. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation are discussed.},
  author       = {Everaert, Jonas and Koster, Ernst},
  issn         = {1528-3542},
  journal      = {EMOTION},
  keywords     = {DIVIDED ATTENTION,RECOGNITION MEMORY,DEPRESSION,RECOLLECTION,DIRECTIONS,HYPOTHESIS,EXPERIENCE,BIASES,WORDS,attention,memory,retrieval,recollection,familiarity},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {539--543},
  title        = {Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000063},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2015},
}

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