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Terrestrial laser scanning as a key element in the integrated monitoring of tidal influences on a twin-tube concrete tunnel

Timothy Nuttens (UGent) , Cornelis Stal (UGent) , Hans De Backer (UGent) , Ken Schotte (UGent) , Philippe Van Bogaert (UGent) , Pierre Detry and Alain De Wulf (UGent)
(2014) PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD. 29(148). p.402-416
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Abstract
In 2012, for the first time in Belgium, integrated monitoring was carried out to assess the deformations of a twin-tube tunnel below the River Scheldt in Antwerp under the influence of estuarine tides. Levelling measurements during a tide cycle showed a variation in the height of levelling bolts of up to 10mm between low and high tide. Simultaneous strain-gauge measurements also showed a significant difference in strains. A deformation of the tunnel section during each twice-daily tide cycle, resulting in an eccentric egg or pumpkin shape, could hold large risks for the strength and durability of the tunnel structure. However, laser scanning results showed that there were no significant deformations of the tunnel's shape during the tide cycle. The laser scanning measurements resulted in a more thorough view of the deformation pattern which was much needed and improved the long-term risk assessment of the tunnel.
Keywords
tunnel construction, LIDAR point clouds, tide cycle, levelling, deformation monitoring, laser scanning

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MLA
Nuttens, Timothy et al. “Terrestrial Laser Scanning as a Key Element in the Integrated Monitoring of Tidal Influences on a Twin-tube Concrete Tunnel.” PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD 29.148 (2014): 402–416. Print.
APA
Nuttens, T., Stal, C., De Backer, H., Schotte, K., Van Bogaert, P., Detry, P., & De Wulf, A. (2014). Terrestrial laser scanning as a key element in the integrated monitoring of tidal influences on a twin-tube concrete tunnel. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD, 29(148), 402–416.
Chicago author-date
Nuttens, Timothy, Cornelis Stal, Hans De Backer, Ken Schotte, Philippe Van Bogaert, Pierre Detry, and Alain De Wulf. 2014. “Terrestrial Laser Scanning as a Key Element in the Integrated Monitoring of Tidal Influences on a Twin-tube Concrete Tunnel.” Photogrammetric Record 29 (148): 402–416.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Nuttens, Timothy, Cornelis Stal, Hans De Backer, Ken Schotte, Philippe Van Bogaert, Pierre Detry, and Alain De Wulf. 2014. “Terrestrial Laser Scanning as a Key Element in the Integrated Monitoring of Tidal Influences on a Twin-tube Concrete Tunnel.” Photogrammetric Record 29 (148): 402–416.
Vancouver
1.
Nuttens T, Stal C, De Backer H, Schotte K, Van Bogaert P, Detry P, et al. Terrestrial laser scanning as a key element in the integrated monitoring of tidal influences on a twin-tube concrete tunnel. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD. 2014;29(148):402–16.
IEEE
[1]
T. Nuttens et al., “Terrestrial laser scanning as a key element in the integrated monitoring of tidal influences on a twin-tube concrete tunnel,” PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD, vol. 29, no. 148, pp. 402–416, 2014.
@article{5806712,
  abstract     = {In 2012, for the first time in Belgium, integrated monitoring was carried out to assess the deformations of a twin-tube tunnel below the River Scheldt in Antwerp under the influence of estuarine tides. Levelling measurements during a tide cycle showed a variation in the height of levelling bolts of up to 10mm between low and high tide. Simultaneous strain-gauge measurements also showed a significant difference in strains. A deformation of the tunnel section during each twice-daily tide cycle, resulting in an eccentric egg or pumpkin shape, could hold large risks for the strength and durability of the tunnel structure. However, laser scanning results showed that there were no significant deformations of the tunnel's shape during the tide cycle. The laser scanning measurements resulted in a more thorough view of the deformation pattern which was much needed and improved the long-term risk assessment of the tunnel.},
  author       = {Nuttens, Timothy and Stal, Cornelis and De Backer, Hans and Schotte, Ken and Van Bogaert, Philippe and Detry, Pierre and De Wulf, Alain},
  issn         = {0031-868X},
  journal      = {PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECORD},
  keywords     = {tunnel construction,LIDAR point clouds,tide cycle,levelling,deformation monitoring,laser scanning},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {148},
  pages        = {402--416},
  title        = {Terrestrial laser scanning as a key element in the integrated monitoring of tidal influences on a twin-tube concrete tunnel},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/phor.12080},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2014},
}

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