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Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours : the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

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Abstract
Background: Parents and their parenting practices play an important role in shaping their children's environment and energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). Measurement of parenting practices can be parent-or child-informed,however not much is known about agreement between parent and child perspectives. This study aimed to assess agreement between parent and child reports on parental practices regarding EBRBs across different countries in Europe and to identify correlates of agreement. Methods: Within the ENERGY-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 10-12 year old children and their parents in eight European countries. Both children and parents filled in a questionnaire on 14 parental practices regarding five different EBRBs (i.e. soft drink, fruit juice and breakfast consumption, sports activity and watching TV) and socio-demographic characteristics. Children's anthropometric measurements were taken at school. We calculated percentages of agreement between children and their parents and weighted kappa statistics (for ordinal variables) per practice and country and assessed factors associated with agreement using multilevel linear regression. Results: Reports of 6425 children and their parents were available for analysis. Overall mean agreement between parent and child reports was 43% and varied little among countries. The lowest agreement was found for questions assessing joint parent-child activities, such as sports (27%; Kappa (kappa) = 0.14) or watching TV (30%;kappa = 0.17), and for parental allowance of the child to have soft drinks (32%;. = 0.24) or fruit juices (32%;kappa= 0.19), or to watch TV (27%;kappa = 0.17). Having breakfast products available at home or having a TV in the child's bedroom were the only practices with moderate to good agreement (> 60%;kappa = 0.06 and 0.77, respectively). In general, agreement was lower for boys, younger children, younger parents, parents with less than 14 years of education, single parents, parents with a higher self-reported body mass index and parents who perceived their child to be underweight. Conclusions: Parents and children perceive parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours differently in all parts of Europe, with considerable variation across specific practices and countries. Therefore, future studies should assess both, parents and children's view on parental practices.
Keywords
TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY, FRUIT, ADOLESCENT SELF-ESTEEM, VEGETABLE INTAKE, CONSTRUCT-VALIDITY, INTERNATIONAL SURVEY, BALANCE-RELATED BEHAVIORS, Health behaviour, Overweight, Inter-observer agreement, Inter-observer variability, Questionnaire, Parenting, Parent, Children, DETERMINANTS, OVERWEIGHT, PROJECT

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Chicago
Rebholz, Cornelia E, Mai JM ChinAPaw, Maartje M van Stralen, Elling Bere, Bettina Bringolf, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Nataša Jan, et al. 2014. “Agreement Between Parent and Child Report on Parental Practices Regarding Dietary, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours : the ENERGY Cross-sectional Survey.” Bmc Public Health 14.
APA
Rebholz, C. E., ChinAPaw, M. J., van Stralen, M. M., Bere, E., Bringolf, B., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Jan, N., et al. (2014). Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours : the ENERGY cross-sectional survey. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 14.
Vancouver
1.
Rebholz CE, ChinAPaw MJ, van Stralen MM, Bere E, Bringolf B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours : the ENERGY cross-sectional survey. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH. 2014;14.
MLA
Rebholz, Cornelia E et al. “Agreement Between Parent and Child Report on Parental Practices Regarding Dietary, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours : the ENERGY Cross-sectional Survey.” BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 14 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5799086,
  abstract     = {Background: Parents and their parenting practices play an important role in shaping their children's environment and energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). Measurement of parenting practices can be parent-or child-informed,however not much is known about agreement between parent and child perspectives. This study aimed to assess agreement between parent and child reports on parental practices regarding EBRBs across different countries in Europe and to identify correlates of agreement. 
Methods: Within the ENERGY-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 10-12 year old children and their parents in eight European countries. Both children and parents filled in a questionnaire on 14 parental practices regarding five different EBRBs (i.e. soft drink, fruit juice and breakfast consumption, sports activity and watching TV) and socio-demographic characteristics. Children's anthropometric measurements were taken at school. We calculated percentages of agreement between children and their parents and weighted kappa statistics (for ordinal variables) per practice and country and assessed factors associated with agreement using multilevel linear regression. 
Results: Reports of 6425 children and their parents were available for analysis. Overall mean agreement between parent and child reports was 43\% and varied little among countries. The lowest agreement was found for questions assessing joint parent-child activities, such as sports (27\%; Kappa (kappa) = 0.14) or watching TV (30\%;kappa = 0.17), and for parental allowance of the child to have soft drinks (32\%;. = 0.24) or fruit juices (32\%;kappa= 0.19), or to watch TV (27\%;kappa = 0.17). Having breakfast products available at home or having a TV in the child's bedroom were the only practices with moderate to good agreement ({\textrangle} 60\%;kappa = 0.06 and 0.77, respectively). In general, agreement was lower for boys, younger children, younger parents, parents with less than 14 years of education, single parents, parents with a higher self-reported body mass index and parents who perceived their child to be underweight. 
Conclusions: Parents and children perceive parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours differently in all parts of Europe, with considerable variation across specific practices and countries. Therefore, future studies should assess both, parents and children's view on parental practices.},
  articleno    = {918},
  author       = {Rebholz, Cornelia E and ChinAPaw, Mai JM and van Stralen, Maartje M and Bere, Elling and Bringolf, Bettina and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Jan, Nata\v{s}a and Kovacs, Eva and Maes, Lea and Manios, Yannis and Moreno, Luis and Singh, Amika S and Brug, Johannes and te Velde, Saskia J},
  issn         = {1471-2458},
  journal      = {BMC PUBLIC HEALTH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {15},
  title        = {Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours : the ENERGY cross-sectional survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-918},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

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