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Parents and friends both matter : simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

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Abstract
Background: The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Results: Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Conclusion: Parental and friends norm and modelling are associated with schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours. Having family rules or showing favourable parental modelling and norms seems to reduce the potential unfavourable associations of friends' norms and modelling with the EBRBs.
Keywords
OVERWEIGHT, ASSOCIATIONS, DETERMINANTS, FRUIT, PROJECT, CHILDREN, WEIGHT STATUS, ADOLESCENT HEALTH, VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, Physical activity, TV viewing, Soft drink, Rules, Modelling, Social norm, Friends, Parents

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MLA
te Velde, Saskia J, Mai JM ChinAPaw, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, et al. “Parents and Friends Both Matter : Simultaneous and Interactive Influences of Parents and Friends on European Schoolchildren’s Energy Balance-related Behaviours: The ENERGY Cross-sectional Study.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 11 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
te Velde, S. J., ChinAPaw, M. J., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Bere, E., Maes, L., Moreno, L., Jan, N., et al. (2014). Parents and friends both matter : simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, 11.
Chicago author-date
te Velde, Saskia J, Mai JM ChinAPaw, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Elling Bere, Lea Maes, Luis Moreno, Nataša Jan, Eva Kovacs, Yannis Manios, and Johannes Brug. 2014. “Parents and Friends Both Matter : Simultaneous and Interactive Influences of Parents and Friends on European Schoolchildren’s Energy Balance-related Behaviours: The ENERGY Cross-sectional Study.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
te Velde, Saskia J, Mai JM ChinAPaw, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Elling Bere, Lea Maes, Luis Moreno, Nataša Jan, Eva Kovacs, Yannis Manios, and Johannes Brug. 2014. “Parents and Friends Both Matter : Simultaneous and Interactive Influences of Parents and Friends on European Schoolchildren’s Energy Balance-related Behaviours: The ENERGY Cross-sectional Study.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11.
Vancouver
1.
te Velde SJ, ChinAPaw MJ, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Bere E, Maes L, Moreno L, et al. Parents and friends both matter : simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 2014;11.
IEEE
[1]
S. J. te Velde et al., “Parents and friends both matter : simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional study,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, vol. 11, 2014.
@article{5797804,
  abstract     = {Background: The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. 
Methods: A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. 
Results: Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. 
Conclusion: Parental and friends norm and modelling are associated with schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours. Having family rules or showing favourable parental modelling and norms seems to reduce the potential unfavourable associations of friends' norms and modelling with the EBRBs.},
  articleno    = {82},
  author       = {te Velde, Saskia J and ChinAPaw, Mai JM and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Bere, Elling and Maes, Lea and Moreno, Luis and Jan, Nataša and Kovacs, Eva and Manios, Yannis and Brug, Johannes},
  issn         = {1479-5868},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
  keywords     = {OVERWEIGHT,ASSOCIATIONS,DETERMINANTS,FRUIT,PROJECT,CHILDREN,WEIGHT STATUS,ADOLESCENT HEALTH,VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,Physical activity,TV viewing,Soft drink,Rules,Modelling,Social norm,Friends,Parents},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Parents and friends both matter : simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-82},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2014},
}

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