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Fitness maximization by dispersal: evidence from an invasion experiment

Dries Bonte (UGent) , Annelies De Roissart (UGent) , Nicky Wybouw (UGent) and Thomas Van Leeuwen (UGent)
(2014) ECOLOGY. 95(11). p.3104-3111
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Abstract
Dispersal is essential for population persistence in transient environments. While costs of dispersal are ubiquitous, individual advantages of dispersal remain poorly understood. Not all individuals from a population disperse, and individual heterogeneity in costs and benefits of dispersal underlie phenotype-dependent dispersal strategies. Dispersing phenotypes are always expected to maximize their fitness by adaptive decision making relative to the alternative strategy of remaining philopatric. While this first principle is well acknowledged in theoretical ecology, empirical verification is extremely difficult, due to a plethora of experimental constraints. We studied fitness prospects of dispersal in a game theoretical context using the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model species. We demonstrate that dispersing phenotypes represent those individuals able to maximize their fitness in a novel, less populated environment reached after dispersal. In contrast to philopatric phenotypes, successful dispersers performed better in a low density post-dispersal context, but worse in a high density philopatric context. They increased fitness about 450% relative to the strategy of remaining philopatric. The optimization of phenotype-dependent dispersal, thus, maximizes fitness.
Keywords
intraspecific competition, dispersal, invasion, philopatric phenotype, population density, Tetranychus urticae, translocation, two-spotted spider mite, CONDITION-DEPENDENT DISPERSAL, SPATIALLY STRUCTURED POPULATIONS, TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE, NATAL DISPERSAL, KIN SELECTION, SPIDER-MITES, CONSEQUENCES, EVOLUTION, HERBIVORE, DYNAMICS

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Citation

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Chicago
Bonte, Dries, Annelies De Roissart, Nicky Wybouw, and Thomas Van Leeuwen. 2014. “Fitness Maximization by Dispersal: Evidence from an Invasion Experiment.” Ecology 95 (11): 3104–3111.
APA
Bonte, Dries, De Roissart, A., Wybouw, N., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2014). Fitness maximization by dispersal: evidence from an invasion experiment. ECOLOGY, 95(11), 3104–3111.
Vancouver
1.
Bonte D, De Roissart A, Wybouw N, Van Leeuwen T. Fitness maximization by dispersal: evidence from an invasion experiment. ECOLOGY. 2014;95(11):3104–11.
MLA
Bonte, Dries et al. “Fitness Maximization by Dispersal: Evidence from an Invasion Experiment.” ECOLOGY 95.11 (2014): 3104–3111. Print.
@article{5796865,
  abstract     = {Dispersal is essential for population persistence in transient environments. While costs of dispersal are ubiquitous, individual advantages of dispersal remain poorly understood. Not all individuals from a population disperse, and individual heterogeneity in costs and benefits of dispersal underlie phenotype-dependent dispersal strategies. Dispersing phenotypes are always expected to maximize their fitness by adaptive decision making relative to the alternative strategy of remaining philopatric. While this first principle is well acknowledged in theoretical ecology, empirical verification is extremely difficult, due to a plethora of experimental constraints. We studied fitness prospects of dispersal in a game theoretical context using the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae as a model species. We demonstrate that dispersing phenotypes represent those individuals able to maximize their fitness in a novel, less populated environment reached after dispersal. In contrast to philopatric phenotypes, successful dispersers performed better in a low density post-dispersal context, but worse in a high density philopatric context. They increased fitness about 450% relative to the strategy of remaining philopatric. The optimization of phenotype-dependent dispersal, thus, maximizes fitness.},
  author       = {Bonte, Dries and De Roissart, Annelies and Wybouw, Nicky and Van Leeuwen, Thomas},
  issn         = {0012-9658},
  journal      = {ECOLOGY},
  keywords     = {intraspecific competition,dispersal,invasion,philopatric phenotype,population density,Tetranychus urticae,translocation,two-spotted spider mite,CONDITION-DEPENDENT DISPERSAL,SPATIALLY STRUCTURED POPULATIONS,TETRANYCHUS-URTICAE,NATAL DISPERSAL,KIN SELECTION,SPIDER-MITES,CONSEQUENCES,EVOLUTION,HERBIVORE,DYNAMICS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {3104--3111},
  title        = {Fitness maximization by dispersal: evidence from an invasion experiment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2269.1},
  volume       = {95},
  year         = {2014},
}

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