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A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region

Aliou Bamba (UGent) , Wout Joseph (UGent) , Günter Vermeeren (UGent) , Arno Thielens (UGent) , Emmeric Tanghe (UGent) and Luc Martens (UGent)
(2014) PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 59(23). p.7435-7456
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Organization
Abstract
A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SAR(wb)) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SAR(wb) in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones-using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method-at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14-12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of -39.40%, -11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SAR(wb) induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research.
Keywords
line of sight illumination, diffuse scattering illumination, whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb), heterogenous phantoms, RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS, WEIGHT, PROPAGATION, ENVIRONMENT, CHILD MODELS, SAR, MHZ, RESONANCE FREQUENCY, ROOM ELECTROMAGNETICS, SURFACE-AREA, diffuse absorption cross section, body surface area, finite difference time domain method

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Bamba, Aliou, Wout Joseph, Günter Vermeeren, Arno Thielens, Emmeric Tanghe, and Luc Martens. 2014. “A Formula for Human Average Whole-body SARwb Under Diffuse Fields Exposure in the GHz Region.” Physics in Medicine and Biology 59 (23): 7435–7456.
APA
Bamba, A., Joseph, W., Vermeeren, G., Thielens, A., Tanghe, E., & Martens, L. (2014). A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region. PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, 59(23), 7435–7456.
Vancouver
1.
Bamba A, Joseph W, Vermeeren G, Thielens A, Tanghe E, Martens L. A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region. PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 2014;59(23):7435–56.
MLA
Bamba, Aliou et al. “A Formula for Human Average Whole-body SARwb Under Diffuse Fields Exposure in the GHz Region.” PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 59.23 (2014): 7435–7456. Print.
@article{5790327,
  abstract     = {A simple formula to determine the human average whole-body SAR (SAR(wb)) under realistic propagation conditions is proposed in the GHz region, i.e. from 1.45 GHz to 5.8 GHz. The methodology is based on simulations of ellipsoidal human body models. Only the exposure (incident power densities) and the human mass are needed to apply the formula. Diffuse scattered illumination is addressed for the first time and the possible presence of a Line-of-Sight (LOS) component is addressed as well. As validation, the formula is applied to calculate the average whole-body SAR(wb) in 3D heterogeneous phantoms, i.e. the virtual family (34 year-old male, 26 year-old female, 11 year-old girl, and 6 year-old boy) and the results are compared with numerical ones-using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method-at 3 GHz. For the LOS exposure, the average relative error varies from 28% to 12% (resp. 14-12%) for the vertical polarization (resp. horizontal polarization), depending on the heteregeneous phantom. Regarding the diffuse illumination, relative errors of -39.40%, -11.70%, 10.70%, and 10.60% are obtained for the 6 year-old boy, 11 year-old girl, 26 year-old female, and 34 year-old male, respectively. The proposed formula estimates well (especially for adults) the SAR(wb) induced by diffuse illumination in realistic conditions. In general, the correctness of the formula improves when the human mass increases. Keeping the uncertainties of the FDTD simulations in mind, the proposed formula might be important for the dosimetry community to assess rapidly and accurately the human absorption of electromagnetic radiation caused by diffuse fields in the GHz region. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed formula to personal dosimetry for epidemiological research.},
  author       = {Bamba, Aliou and Joseph, Wout and Vermeeren, Günter and Thielens, Arno and Tanghe, Emmeric and Martens, Luc},
  issn         = {0031-9155},
  journal      = {PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {line of sight illumination,diffuse scattering illumination,whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb),heterogenous phantoms,RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS,WEIGHT,PROPAGATION,ENVIRONMENT,CHILD MODELS,SAR,MHZ,RESONANCE FREQUENCY,ROOM ELECTROMAGNETICS,SURFACE-AREA,diffuse absorption cross section,body surface area,finite difference time domain method},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {23},
  pages        = {7435--7456},
  title        = {A formula for human average whole-body SARwb under diffuse fields exposure in the GHz region},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/59/23/7435},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2014},
}

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