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Global phosphorus scarcity and full-scale P-recovery techniques: a review

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Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all life on earth. However, natural P resources (phosphate rock) are depleting. The authors describe the current situation and a forecast for future phosphate production and reserves. The current depletion of phosphate reserves and the increasingly stringent discharge regulations have led to the development of various P-recovery techniques from wastewater. Existing full-scale P-recovery techniques from the liquid phase, sludge phase, and sludge ash are reviewed. Although the full-scale P-recovery techniques have been shown to be technologically feasible, the economical feasibility, legislation and national policies are the major reasons why these techniques are not yet operational worldwide.
Keywords
depletion, reserves, ACCUMULATION, WASTEWATERS, MANAGEMENT, CRYSTALLIZATION, MANURE, URINE, STRUVITE PRECIPITATION, REMOVAL, MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER, CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION, phosphorus, P-recovery techniques

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Citation

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Chicago
Desmidt, Evelyn, Karel Ghyselbrecht, Yang Zhang, Luc Pinoy, Bart Van der Bruggen, Willy Verstraete, Korneel Rabaey, and Boudewijn Meesschaert. 2015. “Global Phosphorus Scarcity and Full-scale P-recovery Techniques: a Review.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 45 (4): 336–384.
APA
Desmidt, E., Ghyselbrecht, K., Zhang, Y., Pinoy, L., Van der Bruggen, B., Verstraete, W., Rabaey, K., et al. (2015). Global phosphorus scarcity and full-scale P-recovery techniques: a review. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 45(4), 336–384.
Vancouver
1.
Desmidt E, Ghyselbrecht K, Zhang Y, Pinoy L, Van der Bruggen B, Verstraete W, et al. Global phosphorus scarcity and full-scale P-recovery techniques: a review. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2015;45(4):336–84.
MLA
Desmidt, Evelyn, Karel Ghyselbrecht, Yang Zhang, et al. “Global Phosphorus Scarcity and Full-scale P-recovery Techniques: a Review.” CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 45.4 (2015): 336–384. Print.
@article{5789284,
  abstract     = {Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all life on earth. However, natural P resources (phosphate rock) are depleting. The authors describe the current situation and a forecast for future phosphate production and reserves. The current depletion of phosphate reserves and the increasingly stringent discharge regulations have led to the development of various P-recovery techniques from wastewater. Existing full-scale P-recovery techniques from the liquid phase, sludge phase, and sludge ash are reviewed. Although the full-scale P-recovery techniques have been shown to be technologically feasible, the economical feasibility, legislation and national policies are the major reasons why these techniques are not yet operational worldwide.},
  author       = {Desmidt, Evelyn and Ghyselbrecht, Karel and Zhang, Yang and Pinoy, Luc and Van der Bruggen, Bart and Verstraete, Willy and Rabaey, Korneel and Meesschaert, Boudewijn},
  issn         = {1064-3389},
  journal      = {CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {depletion,reserves,ACCUMULATION,WASTEWATERS,MANAGEMENT,CRYSTALLIZATION,MANURE,URINE,STRUVITE PRECIPITATION,REMOVAL,MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER,CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION,phosphorus,P-recovery techniques},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {336--384},
  title        = {Global phosphorus scarcity and full-scale P-recovery techniques: a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2013.866531},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2015},
}

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