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Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

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Abstract
Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 mu g mL(-1) with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with conventional liquid measurements, and by analyzing IAEA-153 reference material (Trace Elements in Milk Powder); a good agreement with the certified value for phosphorus was obtained
Keywords
dried-droplet quantification, Biochemical fermentation, ICP-OES, Laser ablation, LEAD, ELEMENTS, PHOSPHORUS, ICP-MS, WHOLE-BLOOD, ATOMIC-ABSORPTION-SPECTROMETRY, PLASMA-MASS SPECTROMETRY

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Chicago
Nischkauer, Winfried, Frank Vanhaecke, Sébastien Bernacchi, Christoph Herwig, and Andreas Limbeck. 2014. “Radial Line-scans as Representative Sampling Strategy in Dried-droplet Laser Ablation of Liquid Samples Deposited on Pre-cut Filter Paper Disks.” Spectrochimica Acta Part B-atomic Spectroscopy 101: 123–129.
APA
Nischkauer, W., Vanhaecke, F., Bernacchi, S., Herwig, C., & Limbeck, A. (2014). Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks. SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, 101, 123–129. Presented at the European symposium on Atomic Spectrometry (ESAS) ; 15th Czech-Slovak Spectroscopic conference.
Vancouver
1.
Nischkauer W, Vanhaecke F, Bernacchi S, Herwig C, Limbeck A. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks. SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY. 2014;101:123–9.
MLA
Nischkauer, Winfried, Frank Vanhaecke, Sébastien Bernacchi, et al. “Radial Line-scans as Representative Sampling Strategy in Dried-droplet Laser Ablation of Liquid Samples Deposited on Pre-cut Filter Paper Disks.” SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY 101 (2014): 123–129. Print.
@article{5784975,
  abstract     = {Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 mu g mL(-1) with a reproducibility of 10 \% relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with conventional liquid measurements, and by analyzing IAEA-153 reference material (Trace Elements in Milk Powder); a good agreement with the certified value for phosphorus was obtained},
  author       = {Nischkauer, Winfried and Vanhaecke, Frank and Bernacchi, S{\'e}bastien and Herwig, Christoph and Limbeck, Andreas},
  issn         = {0584-8547},
  journal      = {SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY},
  keyword      = {dried-droplet quantification,Biochemical fermentation,ICP-OES,Laser ablation,LEAD,ELEMENTS,PHOSPHORUS,ICP-MS,WHOLE-BLOOD,ATOMIC-ABSORPTION-SPECTROMETRY,PLASMA-MASS SPECTROMETRY},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Prague, Czech Republic},
  pages        = {123--129},
  title        = {Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2014.07.023},
  volume       = {101},
  year         = {2014},
}

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