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Changes in soil ergosterol content, glomalin-related soil protein, and phospholipid fatty acid profile as affected by long-term organic and chemical fertilization practices in Mediterranean Turkey

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Abstract
The present study examines the effects of different fertilization treatments (chemical fertilization, farmyard manure, plant compost, and mycorrhiza-inoculated compost) on the soil fungi under a crop rotation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) in a long-term field experiment established in Mediterranean Turkey in 1996. Soil samples were collected in May, August, and October 2009. Soil pH, organic carbon, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus, mycorrhizal colonization, and a series of biochemical markers (phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid [PLFA and NLFA] profiles, soil ergosterol content, and glomalin related soil protein [GRSP] as indicators of abundance of bacteria, saprotrophic, and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi) were assessed. No significant difference was observed in soil organic C and plant available N in relation to long-term fertilization treatments, but plant available P in soil changed significantly in relation to the fertilization treatment used and the sampling season (between 11.5–33.8 mg · kg−1 in spring, 10.4–28.6 mg · kg−1 in summer, and 10.5–33.2 mg · kg−1 in autumn). Mycorrhizal colonization patterns were similar for both plants. However, mycorrhiza-inoculated compost treatment exhibited higher root colonization (77.3%) over control (16.3%), chemical fertilization (10.0%), farmyard manure (19.3%), and plant compost (20.0%). No statistically significant change was observed in ergosterol content. The effect of long-term organic treatments on soil PLFA structure was statistically prominent; whereas seasonality only affected bacterial PLFAs. Organic fertilization increased GRSP (mean annual ranging from 0.91 to 2.46 mg · g−1 total GRSP) but long-term annual mycorrhizal inoculation had no significant effect on the soil GRSP pool.
Keywords
NUTRIENT-UPTAKE, CARBON, CROP-ROTATION, COMPOST ADDITION, ENZYME-ACTIVITIES, AGGREGATE STABILITY, AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT, MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES, CORN-SOYBEAN ROTATION, arbuscular mycorrhiza, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, ergosterol, soil fungi, glomalin, organic fertilization, phospholipid fatty acids

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Chicago
Turgay, Oğuz Can, David Buchan, Bram Moeskops, Bart De Gusseme, İbrahim Ortaş, and Stefaan De Neve. 2015. “Changes in Soil Ergosterol Content, Glomalin-related Soil Protein, and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profile as Affected by Long-term Organic and Chemical Fertilization Practices in Mediterranean Turkey.” Arid Land Research and Management 29 (2): 180–198.
APA
Turgay, O. C., Buchan, D., Moeskops, B., De Gusseme, B., Ortaş, İ., & De Neve, S. (2015). Changes in soil ergosterol content, glomalin-related soil protein, and phospholipid fatty acid profile as affected by long-term organic and chemical fertilization practices in Mediterranean Turkey. ARID LAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, 29(2), 180–198.
Vancouver
1.
Turgay OC, Buchan D, Moeskops B, De Gusseme B, Ortaş İ, De Neve S. Changes in soil ergosterol content, glomalin-related soil protein, and phospholipid fatty acid profile as affected by long-term organic and chemical fertilization practices in Mediterranean Turkey. ARID LAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT. 2015;29(2):180–98.
MLA
Turgay, Oğuz Can, David Buchan, Bram Moeskops, et al. “Changes in Soil Ergosterol Content, Glomalin-related Soil Protein, and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profile as Affected by Long-term Organic and Chemical Fertilization Practices in Mediterranean Turkey.” ARID LAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT 29.2 (2015): 180–198. Print.
@article{5781434,
  abstract     = {The present study examines the effects of different fertilization treatments (chemical fertilization, farmyard manure, plant compost, and mycorrhiza-inoculated compost) on the soil fungi under a crop rotation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) in a long-term field experiment established in Mediterranean Turkey in 1996. Soil samples were collected in May, August, and October 2009. Soil pH, organic carbon, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus, mycorrhizal colonization, and a series of biochemical markers (phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid [PLFA and NLFA] profiles, soil ergosterol content, and glomalin related soil protein [GRSP] as indicators of abundance of bacteria, saprotrophic, and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi) were assessed. No significant difference was observed in soil organic C and plant available N in relation to long-term fertilization treatments, but plant available P in soil changed significantly in relation to the fertilization treatment used and the sampling season (between 11.5--33.8 mg {\textperiodcentered} kg\ensuremath{-}1 in spring, 10.4--28.6 mg {\textperiodcentered} kg\ensuremath{-}1 in summer, and 10.5--33.2 mg {\textperiodcentered} kg\ensuremath{-}1 in autumn). Mycorrhizal colonization patterns were similar for both plants. However, mycorrhiza-inoculated compost treatment exhibited higher root colonization (77.3\%) over control (16.3\%), chemical fertilization (10.0\%), farmyard manure (19.3\%), and plant compost (20.0\%). No statistically significant change was observed in ergosterol content. The effect of long-term organic treatments on soil PLFA structure was statistically prominent; whereas seasonality only affected bacterial PLFAs. Organic fertilization increased GRSP (mean annual ranging from 0.91 to 2.46 mg {\textperiodcentered} g\ensuremath{-}1 total GRSP) but long-term annual mycorrhizal inoculation had no significant effect on the soil GRSP pool.},
  author       = {Turgay, O\u{g}uz Can and Buchan, David and Moeskops, Bram and De Gusseme, Bart and Orta\c{s}, \.{I}brahim and De Neve, Stefaan},
  issn         = {1532-4982},
  journal      = {ARID LAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT},
  keyword      = {NUTRIENT-UPTAKE,CARBON,CROP-ROTATION,COMPOST ADDITION,ENZYME-ACTIVITIES,AGGREGATE STABILITY,AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT,MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES,CORN-SOYBEAN ROTATION,arbuscular mycorrhiza,ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI,ergosterol,soil fungi,glomalin,organic fertilization,phospholipid fatty acids},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {180--198},
  title        = {Changes in soil ergosterol content, glomalin-related soil protein, and phospholipid fatty acid profile as affected by long-term organic and chemical fertilization practices in Mediterranean Turkey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15324982.2014.944246},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2015},
}

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