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Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability

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Abstract
The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag-reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment, and is therefore used in bio-inspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilisation is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral-reef territories. Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace. Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared to more generalised fish morphologies. Secondly, the current theory of course stabilisation due to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilising moments were found consistently. This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilising moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting.
Keywords
OSTRACIIDAE, KINEMATICS, AQUATIC LOCOMOTION, hydrodynamics, boxfish, manoeuvrability, course stability, drag force, swimming, TELEOSTEI, STABILITY, FISHES, FINS

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MLA
Van Wassenbergh, Sam, Klaas van Manen, Tina A Marcroft, et al. “Boxfish Swimming Paradox Resolved: Forces by the Flow of Water Around the Body Promote Manoeuvrability.” JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE 12.103 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
Van Wassenbergh, Sam, van Manen, K., Marcroft, T. A., Alfaro, M. E., & Stamhuis, E. J. (2015). Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, 12(103).
Chicago author-date
Van Wassenbergh, Sam, Klaas van Manen, Tina A Marcroft, Michael E Alfaro, and Eize J Stamhuis. 2015. “Boxfish Swimming Paradox Resolved: Forces by the Flow of Water Around the Body Promote Manoeuvrability.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12 (103).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Wassenbergh, Sam, Klaas van Manen, Tina A Marcroft, Michael E Alfaro, and Eize J Stamhuis. 2015. “Boxfish Swimming Paradox Resolved: Forces by the Flow of Water Around the Body Promote Manoeuvrability.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12 (103).
Vancouver
1.
Van Wassenbergh S, van Manen K, Marcroft TA, Alfaro ME, Stamhuis EJ. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE. 2015;12(103).
IEEE
[1]
S. Van Wassenbergh, K. van Manen, T. A. Marcroft, M. E. Alfaro, and E. J. Stamhuis, “Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability,” JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, vol. 12, no. 103, 2015.
@article{5779086,
  abstract     = {{The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag-reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment, and is therefore used in bio-inspired design of cars.  However, tight swimming-course stabilisation is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral-reef territories.  Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace.  Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared to more generalised fish morphologies.  Secondly, the current theory of course stabilisation due to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilising moments were found consistently.  This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilising moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting.}},
  articleno    = {{20141146}},
  author       = {{Van Wassenbergh, Sam and van Manen, Klaas and Marcroft, Tina A and Alfaro, Michael E and Stamhuis, Eize J}},
  issn         = {{1742-5689}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE}},
  keywords     = {{OSTRACIIDAE,KINEMATICS,AQUATIC LOCOMOTION,hydrodynamics,boxfish,manoeuvrability,course stability,drag force,swimming,TELEOSTEI,STABILITY,FISHES,FINS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{103}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.1146}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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