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Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music

Bart Moens UGent, Chris Muller, Leon van Noorden, Marek Franěk, Bert Celie UGent, Jan Boone UGent, Jan Bourgois UGent and Marc Leman UGent (2014) PLOS ONE. 9(12).
abstract
In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user’s walking tempo and phase. DJogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music’s tempo continuously to the runner’s pace. The second strategy matched the music’s tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner’s pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner’s pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phaselock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
PHASE-TRANSITIONS, SENSORIMOTOR SYNCHRONIZATION, SYNCHRONOUS MUSIC, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, EXERCISE DOMAIN, AUDITORY CUES, GAIT, WALKING, VARIABILITY, PERFORMANCE, IPEMapplication, IPEMentrainment
journal title
PLOS ONE
PLoS One
volume
9
issue
12
article number
e114234
pages
40 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000347515300022
JCR category
MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
3.234 (2014)
JCR rank
9/57 (2014)
JCR quartile
1 (2014)
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0114234
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
5778876
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-5778876
date created
2014-12-10 09:17:04
date last changed
2016-12-21 15:42:42
@article{5778876,
  abstract     = {In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user{\textquoteright}s walking tempo and phase. DJogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music{\textquoteright}s tempo continuously to the runner{\textquoteright}s pace. The second strategy matched the music{\textquoteright}s tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner{\textquoteright}s pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner{\textquoteright}s pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phaselock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance},
  articleno    = {e114234},
  author       = {Moens, Bart and Muller, Chris and van Noorden, Leon and Fran\v{e}k, Marek and Celie, Bert and Boone, Jan and Bourgois, Jan and Leman, Marc},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {PHASE-TRANSITIONS,SENSORIMOTOR SYNCHRONIZATION,SYNCHRONOUS MUSIC,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,EXERCISE DOMAIN,AUDITORY CUES,GAIT,WALKING,VARIABILITY,PERFORMANCE,IPEMapplication,IPEMentrainment},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {40},
  title        = {Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114234},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2014},
}

Chicago
Moens, Bart, Chris Muller, Leon van Noorden, Marek Franěk, Bert Celie, Jan Boone, Jan Bourgois, and Marc Leman. 2014. “Encouraging Spontaneous Synchronisation with D-Jogger, an Adaptive Music Player That Aligns Movement and Music.” Plos One 9 (12).
APA
Moens, B., Muller, C., van Noorden, L., Franěk, M., Celie, B., Boone, J., Bourgois, J., et al. (2014). Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music. PLOS ONE, 9(12).
Vancouver
1.
Moens B, Muller C, van Noorden L, Franěk M, Celie B, Boone J, et al. Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(12).
MLA
Moens, Bart, Chris Muller, Leon van Noorden, et al. “Encouraging Spontaneous Synchronisation with D-Jogger, an Adaptive Music Player That Aligns Movement and Music.” PLOS ONE 9.12 (2014): n. pag. Print.