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Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school : a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit

Griet Vanwolleghem (UGent) , Delfien Van Dyck (UGent) , Fabian Ducheyne (UGent) , Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij (UGent) and Greet Cardon (UGent)
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Abstract
Background: Google Street View provides a valuable and efficient alternative to observe the physical environment compared to on-site fieldwork. However, studies on the use, reliability and validity of Google Street View in a cycling-to-school context are lacking. We aimed to study the intra-, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of EGA-Cycling (Environmental Google Street View Based Audit - Cycling to school), a newly developed audit using Google Street View to assess the physical environment along cycling routes to school. Methods: Parents (n = 52) of 11-to-12-year old Flemish children, who mostly cycled to school, completed a questionnaire and identified their child's cycling route to school on a street map. Fifty cycling routes of 11-to-12-year olds were identified and physical environmental characteristics along the identified routes were rated with EGA-Cycling (5 subscales; 37 items), based on Google Street View. To assess reliability, two researchers performed the audit. Criterion validity of the audit was examined by comparing the ratings based on Google Street View with ratings through on-site assessments. Results: Intra-rater reliability was high (kappa range 0.47-1.00). Large variations in the inter-rater reliability (kappa range -0.03-1.00) and criterion validity scores (kappa range -0.06-1.00) were reported, with acceptable inter-rater reliability values for 43% of all items and acceptable criterion validity for 54% of all items. Conclusions: EGA-Cycling can be used to assess physical environmental characteristics along cycling routes to school. However, to assess the micro-environment specifically related to cycling, on-site assessments have to be added.
Keywords
Active commuting to school, Cycling routes, Google Street View, Children, Physical environment, IRVINE-MINNESOTA INVENTORY, MEASURE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, MENTAL-HEALTH, CHILDREN, ASSOCIATIONS, WALKING, ADOLESCENTS, INSTRUMENTS, TRANSPORT

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Chicago
Vanwolleghem, Griet, Delfien Van Dyck, Fabian Ducheyne, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, and Greet Cardon. 2014. “Assessing the Environmental Characteristics of Cycling Routes to School : a Study on the Reliability and Validity of a Google Street View-based Audit.” International Journal of Health Geographics 13.
APA
Vanwolleghem, G., Van Dyck, D., Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Cardon, G. (2014). Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school : a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS, 13.
Vancouver
1.
Vanwolleghem G, Van Dyck D, Ducheyne F, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cardon G. Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school : a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS. 2014;13.
MLA
Vanwolleghem, Griet, Delfien Van Dyck, Fabian Ducheyne, et al. “Assessing the Environmental Characteristics of Cycling Routes to School : a Study on the Reliability and Validity of a Google Street View-based Audit.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS 13 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5766047,
  abstract     = {Background: Google Street View provides a valuable and efficient alternative to observe the physical environment compared to on-site fieldwork. However, studies on the use, reliability and validity of Google Street View in a cycling-to-school context are lacking. We aimed to study the intra-, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of EGA-Cycling (Environmental Google Street View Based Audit - Cycling to school), a newly developed audit using Google Street View to assess the physical environment along cycling routes to school. 
Methods: Parents (n = 52) of 11-to-12-year old Flemish children, who mostly cycled to school, completed a questionnaire and identified their child's cycling route to school on a street map. Fifty cycling routes of 11-to-12-year olds were identified and physical environmental characteristics along the identified routes were rated with EGA-Cycling (5 subscales; 37 items), based on Google Street View. To assess reliability, two researchers performed the audit. Criterion validity of the audit was examined by comparing the ratings based on Google Street View with ratings through on-site assessments. 
Results: Intra-rater reliability was high (kappa range 0.47-1.00). Large variations in the inter-rater reliability (kappa range -0.03-1.00) and criterion validity scores (kappa range -0.06-1.00) were reported, with acceptable inter-rater reliability values for 43\% of all items and acceptable criterion validity for 54\% of all items. 
Conclusions: EGA-Cycling can be used to assess physical environmental characteristics along cycling routes to school. However, to assess the micro-environment specifically related to cycling, on-site assessments have to be added.},
  articleno    = {19},
  author       = {Vanwolleghem, Griet and Van Dyck, Delfien and Ducheyne, Fabian and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Cardon, Greet},
  issn         = {1476-072X},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school : a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-13-19},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2014},
}

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