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Preventable proportion of severe infections acquired in intensive care units: case-mix adjusted estimations from patient-based surveillance data

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Abstract
Background. More than 10% of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) experience a severe, healthcare-associated infection, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or bloodstream infection (BSI). What could be a public health target for prevention is hotly debated, because properly adjusting for intrinsic risk factors in the patient population is difficult. We aimed to estimate the proportion of ICU-acquired VAP and BSI cases that are amenable to prevention in routine conditions. Methods. We analyzed routine data collected prospectively according to the European standard protocol for patient-based surveillance of healthcare-acquired infections in ICUs. We computed the number of infections to be expected if, after adjustment for case mix, the infection incidence in ICUs with higher infection rates could be reduced to that of the top-tenth-percentile-ranked ICU. Computations came from model-based simulation of individual patient profiles over time in the ICU. The preventable proportion was computed as the number of observed cases minus the number of expected cases divided by the number of observed cases. Results. Data for 78,222 patients admitted for more than 2 days to 525 ICUs in 6 European countries from 2005 to 2008 were available for analysis. We calculated that 52% of VAP and 69% of BSI was preventable. Conclusions. Our pragmatic, if highly conservative, estimates quantify the potential for prevention of VAP and BSI in routine conditions, assuming that variation in infection incidence between ICUs can be eliminated with improved quality of care, apart from variation attributable to differential case mix.
Keywords
MICHIGAN, ZERO, RISK-FACTORS, NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS, BLOOD-STREAM INFECTIONS, VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA, MORTALITY

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Chicago
Lambert, Marie-Laurence, Geert Silversmit, Anne Savey, Mercedes Palomar, Michael Hiesmayr, Antonella Agodi, Bart Van Rompaye, Karl Mertens, and Stijn Vansteelandt. 2014. “Preventable Proportion of Severe Infections Acquired in Intensive Care Units: Case-mix Adjusted Estimations from Patient-based Surveillance Data.” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 35 (5): 494–501.
APA
Lambert, M.-L., Silversmit, G., Savey, A., Palomar, M., Hiesmayr, M., Agodi, A., Van Rompaye, B., et al. (2014). Preventable proportion of severe infections acquired in intensive care units: case-mix adjusted estimations from patient-based surveillance data. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 35(5), 494–501.
Vancouver
1.
Lambert M-L, Silversmit G, Savey A, Palomar M, Hiesmayr M, Agodi A, et al. Preventable proportion of severe infections acquired in intensive care units: case-mix adjusted estimations from patient-based surveillance data. INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2014;35(5):494–501.
MLA
Lambert, Marie-Laurence, Geert Silversmit, Anne Savey, et al. “Preventable Proportion of Severe Infections Acquired in Intensive Care Units: Case-mix Adjusted Estimations from Patient-based Surveillance Data.” INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 35.5 (2014): 494–501. Print.
@article{5765142,
  abstract     = {Background. More than 10\% of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) experience a severe, healthcare-associated infection, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or bloodstream infection (BSI). What could be a public health target for prevention is hotly debated, because properly adjusting for intrinsic risk factors in the patient population is difficult. We aimed to estimate the proportion of ICU-acquired VAP and BSI cases that are amenable to prevention in routine conditions. 
Methods. We analyzed routine data collected prospectively according to the European standard protocol for patient-based surveillance of healthcare-acquired infections in ICUs. We computed the number of infections to be expected if, after adjustment for case mix, the infection incidence in ICUs with higher infection rates could be reduced to that of the top-tenth-percentile-ranked ICU. Computations came from model-based simulation of individual patient profiles over time in the ICU. The preventable proportion was computed as the number of observed cases minus the number of expected cases divided by the number of observed cases. 
Results. Data for 78,222 patients admitted for more than 2 days to 525 ICUs in 6 European countries from 2005 to 2008 were available for analysis. We calculated that 52\% of VAP and 69\% of BSI was preventable. 
Conclusions. Our pragmatic, if highly conservative, estimates quantify the potential for prevention of VAP and BSI in routine conditions, assuming that variation in infection incidence between ICUs can be eliminated with improved quality of care, apart from variation attributable to differential case mix.},
  author       = {Lambert, Marie-Laurence and Silversmit, Geert and Savey, Anne and Palomar, Mercedes and Hiesmayr, Michael and Agodi, Antonella and Van Rompaye, Bart and Mertens, Karl and Vansteelandt, Stijn},
  issn         = {0899-823X},
  journal      = {INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {494--501},
  title        = {Preventable proportion of severe infections acquired in intensive care units: case-mix adjusted estimations from patient-based surveillance data},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/675824},
  volume       = {35},
  year         = {2014},
}

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