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Mycosubtilin and surfactin are efficient, low ecotoxicity molecules for the biocontrol of lettuce downy mildew

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Abstract
The use of surfactin and mycosubtilin as an ecofriendly alternative to control lettuce downy mildew caused by the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae was investigated. Preliminary ecotoxicity evaluations obtained from three different tests revealed the rather low toxicity of these lipopeptides separately or in combination. The EC50 (concentration estimated to cause a 50 % response by the exposed test organisms) was about 100 mg L-1 in Microtox assays and 6 mg L-1 in Daphnia magna immobilization tests for mycosubtilin and 125 mg L-1 and 25 mg L-1 for surfactin, respectively. The toxicity of the mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (1:1, w/w) was close to that obtained with mycosubtilin alone. In addition, the very low phytotoxic effect of these lipopeptides has been observed on germination and root growth of garden cress Lepidium sativum L. While a surfactin treatment did not influence the development of B. lactucae on lettuce plantlets, treatment with 100 mg L-1 of mycosubtilin produced about seven times more healthy plantlets than the control samples, indicating that mycosubtilin strongly reduced the development of B. lactucae. The mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (50:50 mg L-1) gave the same result on B. lactucae development as 100 mg L-1 of mycosubtilin. The results of ecotoxicity as well as those obtained in biocontrol experiments indicated that the presence of surfactin enhances the biological activities of mycosubtilin. Mycosubtilin and surfactin were thus found to be efficient compounds against lettuce downy mildew, with low toxicity compared to the toxicity values of chemical pesticides. This is the first time that Bacillus lipopeptides have been tested in vivo against an obligate pathogen and that ecotoxic values have been given for surfactin and mycosubtilin.
Keywords
AQUATIC ORGANISMS, DEFENSE RESPONSES, BREMIA-LACTUCAE, PLANT-PATHOGENS, FENGYCIN, TOXICITY, DISEASE, LIPOPEPTIDE SURFACTIN, ITURIN-A, BACILLUS-SUBTILIS ATCC6633, Bremia lactucae, Bacillus subtilis, Ecotoxicity, Lipopeptides, Surfactin, Mycosubtilin

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Citation

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Chicago
Deravel, Jovana, Sébastien Lemière, François Coutte, François Krier, Nathalie Van Hese, Max Béchet, Nathanaëlle Sourdeau, Monica Höfte, Alain Leptrêtre, and Philippe Jacques. 2014. “Mycosubtilin and Surfactin Are Efficient, Low Ecotoxicity Molecules for the Biocontrol of Lettuce Downy Mildew.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 98 (14): 6255–6264.
APA
Deravel, J., Lemière, S., Coutte, F., Krier, F., Van Hese, N., Béchet, M., Sourdeau, N., et al. (2014). Mycosubtilin and surfactin are efficient, low ecotoxicity molecules for the biocontrol of lettuce downy mildew. APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 98(14), 6255–6264.
Vancouver
1.
Deravel J, Lemière S, Coutte F, Krier F, Van Hese N, Béchet M, et al. Mycosubtilin and surfactin are efficient, low ecotoxicity molecules for the biocontrol of lettuce downy mildew. APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. 2014;98(14):6255–64.
MLA
Deravel, Jovana, Sébastien Lemière, François Coutte, et al. “Mycosubtilin and Surfactin Are Efficient, Low Ecotoxicity Molecules for the Biocontrol of Lettuce Downy Mildew.” APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 98.14 (2014): 6255–6264. Print.
@article{5764816,
  abstract     = {The use of surfactin and mycosubtilin as an ecofriendly alternative to control lettuce downy mildew caused by the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae was investigated. Preliminary ecotoxicity evaluations obtained from three different tests revealed the rather low toxicity of these lipopeptides separately or in combination. The EC50 (concentration estimated to cause a 50 \% response by the exposed test organisms) was about 100 mg L-1 in Microtox assays and 6 mg L-1 in Daphnia magna immobilization tests for mycosubtilin and 125 mg L-1 and 25 mg L-1 for surfactin, respectively. The toxicity of the mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (1:1, w/w) was close to that obtained with mycosubtilin alone. In addition, the very low phytotoxic effect of these lipopeptides has been observed on germination and root growth of garden cress Lepidium sativum L. While a surfactin treatment did not influence the development of B. lactucae on lettuce plantlets, treatment with 100 mg L-1 of mycosubtilin produced about seven times more healthy plantlets than the control samples, indicating that mycosubtilin strongly reduced the development of B. lactucae. The mixture mycosubtilin/surfactin (50:50 mg L-1) gave the same result on B. lactucae development as 100 mg L-1 of mycosubtilin. The results of ecotoxicity as well as those obtained in biocontrol experiments indicated that the presence of surfactin enhances the biological activities of mycosubtilin. Mycosubtilin and surfactin were thus found to be efficient compounds against lettuce downy mildew, with low toxicity compared to the toxicity values of chemical pesticides. This is the first time that Bacillus lipopeptides have been tested in vivo against an obligate pathogen and that ecotoxic values have been given for surfactin and mycosubtilin.},
  author       = {Deravel, Jovana and Lemi{\`e}re, S{\'e}bastien and Coutte, Fran\c{c}ois and Krier, Fran\c{c}ois and Van Hese, Nathalie and B{\'e}chet, Max and Sourdeau, Nathana{\"e}lle and H{\"o}fte, Monica and Leptr{\^e}tre, Alain and Jacques, Philippe},
  issn         = {0175-7598},
  journal      = {APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {6255--6264},
  title        = {Mycosubtilin and surfactin are efficient, low ecotoxicity molecules for the biocontrol of lettuce downy mildew},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5663-1},
  volume       = {98},
  year         = {2014},
}

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