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Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries

(2014) HEART. 100(19). p.1517-1523
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Abstract
Objective: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference; systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; total, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides and glucose levels. Within each study, all data were adjusted for age, gender and current smoking. For blood pressure, lipids and glucose levels, further adjustments on BMI and drug treatment were performed. Results: In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CVRFs levels tended to be higher in winter and lower in summer months. These patterns were observed for most studies. In the Northern Hemisphere, the estimated seasonal variations were 0.26 kg/m(2) for BMI, 0.6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: CVRFs show a seasonal pattern characterised by higher levels in winter, and lower levels in summer. This pattern could contribute to the seasonality of CV mortality.
Keywords
AIR-POLLUTION, MORTALITY, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE, BLOOD-PRESSURE, POPULATION, DISEASE, PROJECT, CITIES

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MLA
Marti-Soler, Helena, Cédric Gubelmann, Stefanie Aeschbacher, et al. “Seasonality of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Analysis Including over 230 000 Participants in 15 Countries.” HEART 100.19 (2014): 1517–1523. Print.
APA
Marti-Soler, H., Gubelmann, C., Aeschbacher, S., Alves, L., Bobak, M., Bongard, V., Clays, E., et al. (2014). Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries. HEART, 100(19), 1517–1523.
Chicago author-date
Marti-Soler, Helena, Cédric Gubelmann, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Luis Alves, Martin Bobak, Vanina Bongard, Els Clays, et al. 2014. “Seasonality of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Analysis Including over 230 000 Participants in 15 Countries.” Heart 100 (19): 1517–1523.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Marti-Soler, Helena, Cédric Gubelmann, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Luis Alves, Martin Bobak, Vanina Bongard, Els Clays, Giovanni de Gaetano, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Roberto Elosua, Jean Ferrieres, Idris Guessous, Jannicke Igland, Torben Jørgensen, Yuri Nikitin, Mark G O’Doherty, Luigi Palmieri, Rafel Ramos, Judith Simons, Gerhard Sulo, Diego Vanuzzo, Joan Vila, Henrique Barros, Anders Borglykke, David Conen, Dirk De Bacquer, Chiara Donfrancesco, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Simona Giampaoli, Graham G Giles, Licia Iacoviello, Frank Kee, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina, Jaume Marrugat, Eva Prescott, Jean Bernard Ruidavets, Robert Scragg, Leon A Simons, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Grethe S Tell, Peter Vollenweider, and Pedro Marques-Vidal. 2014. “Seasonality of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Analysis Including over 230 000 Participants in 15 Countries.” Heart 100 (19): 1517–1523.
Vancouver
1.
Marti-Soler H, Gubelmann C, Aeschbacher S, Alves L, Bobak M, Bongard V, et al. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries. HEART. 2014;100(19):1517–23.
IEEE
[1]
H. Marti-Soler et al., “Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries,” HEART, vol. 100, no. 19, pp. 1517–1523, 2014.
@article{5764250,
  abstract     = {Objective: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. 
Methods: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference; systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; total, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides and glucose levels. Within each study, all data were adjusted for age, gender and current smoking. For blood pressure, lipids and glucose levels, further adjustments on BMI and drug treatment were performed. 
Results: In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CVRFs levels tended to be higher in winter and lower in summer months. These patterns were observed for most studies. In the Northern Hemisphere, the estimated seasonal variations were 0.26 kg/m(2) for BMI, 0.6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. 
Conclusions: CVRFs show a seasonal pattern characterised by higher levels in winter, and lower levels in summer. This pattern could contribute to the seasonality of CV mortality.},
  author       = {Marti-Soler, Helena and Gubelmann, Cédric and Aeschbacher, Stefanie and Alves, Luis and Bobak, Martin and Bongard, Vanina and Clays, Els and de Gaetano, Giovanni and Di Castelnuovo, Augusto and Elosua, Roberto and Ferrieres, Jean and Guessous, Idris and Igland, Jannicke and Jørgensen, Torben and Nikitin, Yuri and O'Doherty, Mark G and Palmieri, Luigi and Ramos, Rafel and Simons, Judith and Sulo, Gerhard and Vanuzzo, Diego and Vila, Joan and Barros, Henrique and Borglykke, Anders and Conen, David and De Bacquer, Dirk and Donfrancesco, Chiara and Gaspoz, Jean-Michel and Giampaoli, Simona and Giles, Graham G and Iacoviello, Licia and Kee, Frank and Kubinova, Ruzena and Malyutina, Sofia and Marrugat, Jaume and Prescott, Eva and Ruidavets, Jean Bernard and Scragg, Robert and Simons, Leon A and Tamosiunas, Abdonas and Tell, Grethe S and Vollenweider, Peter and Marques-Vidal, Pedro},
  issn         = {1355-6037},
  journal      = {HEART},
  keywords     = {AIR-POLLUTION,MORTALITY,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE,BLOOD-PRESSURE,POPULATION,DISEASE,PROJECT,CITIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {19},
  pages        = {1517--1523},
  title        = {Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305623},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2014},
}

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