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Comparison of criminal and administrative penalties for environmental offenses

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Abstract
We conduct a counterfactual analysis to measure the treatment difference between administrative and criminal enforcement of environmental violations. Our aim is to control for the selection bias effect and make a comparison of how similar offenses are treated in both enforcement tracks. This analysis is relevant to answer the question of how deterrence and welfare in a combined criminal-administrative enforcement system compare with an enforcement system relying on criminal penalization only. This is an important question given the observed shift towards two-track penalization systems, combining administrative and criminal penalization, for environmental enforcement in the European Union. We apply matching techniques on a unique dataset of environmental enforcement cases to control for sample selection bias. We match different enforcement cases, based on case characteristics and estimate the average treatment effect for these cases. Overall, we find that the marginal penalty is slightly lower in administrative enforcement compared to criminal enforcement.
Keywords
Criminal and administrative enforcement, Counterfactual analysis, ENFORCEMENT, Propensity score matching, CRIME, LAW, STIGMA, Environmental law enforcement

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Citation

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MLA
Blondiau, Thomas, Carole Billiet, and Sandra Rousseau. “Comparison of Criminal and Administrative Penalties for Environmental Offenses.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS 39.1 (2015): 11–35. Print.
APA
Blondiau, T., Billiet, C., & Rousseau, S. (2015). Comparison of criminal and administrative penalties for environmental offenses. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS, 39(1), 11–35.
Chicago author-date
Blondiau, Thomas, Carole Billiet, and Sandra Rousseau. 2015. “Comparison of Criminal and Administrative Penalties for Environmental Offenses.” European Journal of Law and Economics 39 (1): 11–35.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Blondiau, Thomas, Carole Billiet, and Sandra Rousseau. 2015. “Comparison of Criminal and Administrative Penalties for Environmental Offenses.” European Journal of Law and Economics 39 (1): 11–35.
Vancouver
1.
Blondiau T, Billiet C, Rousseau S. Comparison of criminal and administrative penalties for environmental offenses. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS. 2015;39(1):11–35.
IEEE
[1]
T. Blondiau, C. Billiet, and S. Rousseau, “Comparison of criminal and administrative penalties for environmental offenses,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 11–35, 2015.
@article{5755635,
  abstract     = {We conduct a counterfactual analysis to measure the treatment difference between administrative and criminal enforcement of environmental violations. Our aim is to control for the selection bias effect and make a comparison of how similar offenses are treated in both enforcement tracks. This analysis is relevant to answer the question of how deterrence and welfare in a combined criminal-administrative enforcement system compare with an enforcement system relying on criminal penalization only. This is an important question given the observed shift towards two-track penalization systems, combining administrative and criminal penalization, for environmental enforcement in the European Union. We apply matching techniques on a unique dataset of environmental enforcement cases to control for sample selection bias. We match different enforcement cases, based on case characteristics and estimate the average treatment effect for these cases. Overall, we find that the marginal penalty is slightly lower in administrative enforcement compared to criminal enforcement.},
  author       = {Blondiau, Thomas and Billiet, Carole and Rousseau, Sandra},
  issn         = {0929-1261},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS},
  keywords     = {Criminal and administrative enforcement,Counterfactual analysis,ENFORCEMENT,Propensity score matching,CRIME,LAW,STIGMA,Environmental law enforcement},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {11--35},
  title        = {Comparison of criminal and administrative penalties for environmental offenses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10657-014-9473-9},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2015},
}

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