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Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows

(2014) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 97(11). p.7054-7064
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Abstract
Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as “at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA” (NEFA ≥0.6 mmol/L) and “not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA” (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose detrimental blood plasma NEFA does not seem cost effective. On the contrary, milk fat C18:1 cis-9 of the second lactation week could be an early warning of cows at risk of detrimental blood NEFA. In this case, selective treatment may be cost effective.
Keywords
NORTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES, CULLING RISK, PROPYLENE-GLYCOL, EARLY-LACTATION, ENERGY-BALANCE, BETA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, METABOLIC PREDICTORS, DISPLACED ABOMASUM, milk fatty acid, nonesterified fatty acid, biomarker, DRY PERIOD, CATTLE

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Chicago
Jorjong, Sasitorn, ATM van Knegsel, Jan Verwaeren, M Val Lahoz, RM Bruckmaier, Bernard De Baets, B Kemp, and Veerle Fievez. 2014. “Milk Fatty Acids as Possible Biomarkers to Early Diagnose Elevated Concentrations of Blood Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 97 (11): 7054–7064.
APA
Jorjong, S., van Knegsel, A., Verwaeren, J., Val Lahoz, M., Bruckmaier, R., De Baets, B., Kemp, B., et al. (2014). Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 97(11), 7054–7064.
Vancouver
1.
Jorjong S, van Knegsel A, Verwaeren J, Val Lahoz M, Bruckmaier R, De Baets B, et al. Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2014;97(11):7054–64.
MLA
Jorjong, Sasitorn, ATM van Knegsel, Jan Verwaeren, et al. “Milk Fatty Acids as Possible Biomarkers to Early Diagnose Elevated Concentrations of Blood Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Dairy Cows.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 97.11 (2014): 7054–7064. Print.
@article{5753187,
  abstract     = {Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as {\textquotedblleft}at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA{\textquotedblright} (NEFA \ensuremath{\geq}0.6 mmol/L) and {\textquotedblleft}not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA{\textquotedblright} (NEFA {\textlangle}0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10\% allowed us to diagnose 46\% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50\% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4\%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8\% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose detrimental blood plasma NEFA does not seem cost effective. On the contrary, milk fat C18:1 cis-9 of the second lactation week could be an early warning of cows at risk of detrimental blood NEFA. In this case, selective treatment may be cost effective.},
  author       = {Jorjong, Sasitorn and van Knegsel, ATM and Verwaeren, Jan and Val Lahoz, M and Bruckmaier, RM and De Baets, Bernard and Kemp, B and Fievez, Veerle},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {NORTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES,CULLING RISK,PROPYLENE-GLYCOL,EARLY-LACTATION,ENERGY-BALANCE,BETA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE,METABOLIC PREDICTORS,DISPLACED ABOMASUM,milk fatty acid,nonesterified fatty acid,biomarker,DRY PERIOD,CATTLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {7054--7064},
  title        = {Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8039},
  volume       = {97},
  year         = {2014},
}

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