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Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods

Tatiana Cucu (UGent) , Kshitij Shrestha (UGent) and Bruno De Meulenaer (UGent)
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Abstract
Sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl-lactylates (SLs) are food emulsifiers especially used in bread and bakery products to improve texture. They should be used at the lowest level at which the desired technological effect is achieved in a specific food category and at amounts not exceeding the maximums set by European Commission Regulation No. 1129/2011. In order to be able to evaluate whether these emulsifiers are used correctly but also to evaluate whether the commercial additive formulations comply with legislation, a quantitative GC-FID method was developed. An internal standard (nonadecanoyl-1-lactylate) was synthesized in-house and pure ester standards were isolated from commercial additive formulations. The method showed a limit of detection of 0.04 and a limit of quantification of 0.12 mg esters ml−1. The commercial additive formulations analysed proved to be complex mixtures of free lactic and fatty acids together with only 50–60% esters. Besides SLs important amounts of palmitoyl-lactylates were present. Different food matrices (with low- and high-fat contents) were spiked with commercial SL formulations and recoveries ranged between 85% and 109%. Determination of SLs in commercial foods (such as bakery and bread) indicated that pre-treatment with amylase was essential to determine accurately the SL content due to the interaction of SL with the amylose.
Keywords
food additives, stearoyl-lactylates, α-amylase treatment, GC-FID, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, EMULSIFIERS, BREAD, DOUGH, STEAROYL-2-LACTYLATE, PERFORMANCE, BREADMAKING, BINDING, BAKING

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Chicago
Cucu, Tatiana, Kshitij Shrestha, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2014. “Development of a Quantitative GC-FID Method for the Determination of Stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in Foods.” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment 31 (12): 1929–1938.
APA
Cucu, T., Shrestha, K., & De Meulenaer, B. (2014). Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, 31(12), 1929–1938.
Vancouver
1.
Cucu T, Shrestha K, De Meulenaer B. Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT. 2014;31(12):1929–38.
MLA
Cucu, Tatiana, Kshitij Shrestha, and Bruno De Meulenaer. “Development of a Quantitative GC-FID Method for the Determination of Stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in Foods.” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT 31.12 (2014): 1929–1938. Print.
@article{5751489,
  abstract     = {Sodium and calcium salts of stearoyl-lactylates (SLs) are food emulsifiers especially used in bread and bakery products to improve texture. They should be used at the lowest level at which the desired technological effect is achieved in a specific food category and at amounts not exceeding the maximums set by European Commission Regulation No. 1129/2011. In order to be able to evaluate whether these emulsifiers are used correctly but also to evaluate whether the commercial additive formulations comply with legislation, a quantitative GC-FID method was developed. An internal standard (nonadecanoyl-1-lactylate) was synthesized in-house and pure ester standards were isolated from commercial additive formulations. The method showed a limit of detection of 0.04 and a limit of quantification of 0.12 mg esters ml\ensuremath{-}1. The commercial additive formulations analysed proved to be complex mixtures of free lactic and fatty acids together with only 50--60\% esters. Besides SLs important amounts of palmitoyl-lactylates were present. Different food matrices (with low- and high-fat contents) were spiked with commercial SL formulations and recoveries ranged between 85\% and 109\%. Determination of SLs in commercial foods (such as bakery and bread) indicated that pre-treatment with amylase was essential to determine accurately the SL content due to the interaction of SL with the amylose.},
  author       = {Cucu, Tatiana and Shrestha, Kshitij and De Meulenaer, Bruno},
  issn         = {1944-0049},
  journal      = {FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE \& RISK ASSESSMENT},
  keyword      = {food additives,stearoyl-lactylates,\ensuremath{\alpha}-amylase treatment,GC-FID,LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,EMULSIFIERS,BREAD,DOUGH,STEAROYL-2-LACTYLATE,PERFORMANCE,BREADMAKING,BINDING,BAKING},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {1929--1938},
  title        = {Development of a quantitative GC-FID method for the determination of stearoyl-lactylates (E481/482) in foods},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.971445},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2014},
}

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