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Daily variations in weather and the relationship with physical activity and sedentary time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: the ENERGY-project

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Abstract
Background: The aim of the study was to examine the association of daily variations in rainfall and temperature with sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in European children. Methods: Children were included from 5 countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland) as part of the ENERGY-project. We used cross-sectional data from 722 children aged 10-12 years (47% boys). ST and PA were measured by accelerometers for 6 consecutive days, including weekend days. Weather data were collected from online national weather reports. Multilevel regression models were used for data analyses. Results: Maximum temperature was positively associated with light PA (beta = 3.1 min/day; 95% CI = 2.4-3.8), moderate-to-vigorous PA (beta = 0.6 min/day; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8), and average PA [beta = 4.1 counts per minute (cpm); 95% CI = 1.6-6.5, quadratic relationship]. Rainfall was inversely and quadratically associated with light PA (beta = -1.3 min/day; 95% CI = -1.9 to -0.6), moderate-to-vigorous PA (beta = -0.6 min/day.: 95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3), and average PA (beta = -1.6 cpm; 95% CI = -2.2 to -0.9). Maximum temperature was not significantly associated with ST (beta = -0.2 min/day; 95% CI = -1.0 to 0.6), while rainfall was positively associated with ST (beta = 0.9 min/day; 95% CI = 0.6-1.3). Conclusions: The current study shows that temperature and rainfall are significantly associated with PA and ST in 10- to l 2-year-old European children.
Keywords
moderate-to-vigorous activity, HEALTH, BEHAVIOR, sitting, CHILDREN, ADOLESCENT GIRLS, climate, light activity, children

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MLA
Yildirim, Mine, Anna Schoeni, Amika S Singh, et al. “Daily Variations in Weather and the Relationship with Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: The ENERGY-project.” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH 11.2 (2014): 419–425. Print.
APA
Yildirim, M., Schoeni, A., Singh, A. S., Altenburg, T. M., Brug, J., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Kovacs, E., et al. (2014). Daily variations in weather and the relationship with physical activity and sedentary time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: the ENERGY-project. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 11(2), 419–425.
Chicago author-date
Yildirim, Mine, Anna Schoeni, Amika S Singh, Teatske M Altenburg, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Eva Kovacs, Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Yannis Manios, and Mai JM Chinapaw. 2014. “Daily Variations in Weather and the Relationship with Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: The ENERGY-project.” Journal of Physical Activity & Health 11 (2): 419–425.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yildirim, Mine, Anna Schoeni, Amika S Singh, Teatske M Altenburg, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Eva Kovacs, Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Yannis Manios, and Mai JM Chinapaw. 2014. “Daily Variations in Weather and the Relationship with Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: The ENERGY-project.” Journal of Physical Activity & Health 11 (2): 419–425.
Vancouver
1.
Yildirim M, Schoeni A, Singh AS, Altenburg TM, Brug J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Daily variations in weather and the relationship with physical activity and sedentary time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: the ENERGY-project. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH. 2014;11(2):419–25.
IEEE
[1]
M. Yildirim et al., “Daily variations in weather and the relationship with physical activity and sedentary time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: the ENERGY-project,” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 419–425, 2014.
@article{5747961,
  abstract     = {Background: The aim of the study was to examine the association of daily variations in rainfall and temperature with sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in European children. Methods: Children were included from 5 countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland) as part of the ENERGY-project. We used cross-sectional data from 722 children aged 10-12 years (47% boys). ST and PA were measured by accelerometers for 6 consecutive days, including weekend days. Weather data were collected from online national weather reports. Multilevel regression models were used for data analyses.
Results: Maximum temperature was positively associated with light PA (beta = 3.1 min/day; 95% CI = 2.4-3.8), moderate-to-vigorous PA (beta = 0.6 min/day; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8), and average PA [beta = 4.1 counts per minute (cpm); 95% CI = 1.6-6.5, quadratic relationship]. Rainfall was inversely and quadratically associated with light PA (beta = -1.3 min/day; 95% CI = -1.9 to -0.6), moderate-to-vigorous PA (beta = -0.6 min/day.: 95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3), and average PA (beta = -1.6 cpm; 95% CI = -2.2 to -0.9). Maximum temperature was not significantly associated with ST (beta = -0.2 min/day; 95% CI = -1.0 to 0.6), while rainfall was positively associated with ST (beta = 0.9 min/day; 95% CI = 0.6-1.3).
Conclusions: The current study shows that temperature and rainfall are significantly associated with PA and ST in 10- to l 2-year-old European children.},
  author       = {Yildirim, Mine and Schoeni, Anna and Singh, Amika S and Altenburg, Teatske M and Brug, Johannes and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Kovacs, Eva and Bringolf-Isler, Bettina and Manios, Yannis and Chinapaw, Mai JM},
  issn         = {1543-3080},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH},
  keywords     = {moderate-to-vigorous activity,HEALTH,BEHAVIOR,sitting,CHILDREN,ADOLESCENT GIRLS,climate,light activity,children},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {419--425},
  title        = {Daily variations in weather and the relationship with physical activity and sedentary time in European 10- to 12-year-olds: the ENERGY-project},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0102},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2014},
}

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