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Factors affecting physical activity in Ecuadorian adolescents: a focus group study

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors. METHODS: Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (N=80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. Additionally, four focus group discussions with parents (N=32) and four with school staff (N=32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model as theoretical frameworks. RESULTS: Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasised traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socio-economic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models. CONCLUSION: A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.
Keywords
DISEASE, CHILDREN, INTERVENTIONS, YOUTH, HEALTH, FITNESS, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, adolescent, physical activity, intervention study, qualitative research, WORLDWIDE, INACTIVITY

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Chicago
Van Royen, Kathleen, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Dolores Susana Andrade Tenesaca, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Silvana Donoso, Lea Maes, and Patrick Kolsteren. 2015. “Factors Affecting Physical Activity in Ecuadorian Adolescents: a Focus Group Study.” Journal of Physical Activity & Health 12 (3): 340–348.
APA
Van Royen, K., Verstraeten, R., Andrade Tenesaca, D. S., Ochoa Avilés, A. M., Donoso, S., Maes, L., & Kolsteren, P. (2015). Factors affecting physical activity in Ecuadorian adolescents: a focus group study. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH, 12(3), 340–348.
Vancouver
1.
Van Royen K, Verstraeten R, Andrade Tenesaca DS, Ochoa Avilés AM, Donoso S, Maes L, et al. Factors affecting physical activity in Ecuadorian adolescents: a focus group study. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH. 2015;12(3):340–8.
MLA
Van Royen, Kathleen, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Dolores Susana Andrade Tenesaca, et al. “Factors Affecting Physical Activity in Ecuadorian Adolescents: a Focus Group Study.” JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH 12.3 (2015): 340–348. Print.
@article{5738684,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors.
METHODS: Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (N=80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. Additionally, four focus group discussions with parents (N=32) and four with school staff (N=32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model as theoretical frameworks.
RESULTS: Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasised traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socio-economic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models.
CONCLUSION: A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.},
  author       = {Van Royen, Kathleen and Verstraeten, Roosmarijn and Andrade Tenesaca, Dolores Susana and Ochoa Avil{\'e}s, Ang{\'e}lica Mar{\'i}a and Donoso, Silvana and Maes, Lea and Kolsteren, Patrick},
  issn         = {1543-3080},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY \& HEALTH},
  keyword      = {DISEASE,CHILDREN,INTERVENTIONS,YOUTH,HEALTH,FITNESS,SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR,adolescent,physical activity,intervention study,qualitative research,WORLDWIDE,INACTIVITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {340--348},
  title        = {Factors affecting physical activity in Ecuadorian adolescents: a focus group study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2013-0288},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2015},
}

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