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The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements

(2015) EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH. 233(1). p.263-273
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Abstract
Music performance requires precise control of limb movements in order to achieve temporal precision of performed tone onsets. Previous findings suggest that processes recruited for the temporal control of rhythmic body movements, such as those required in music performance, depend on the movement type (discrete vs. continuous) and the rate of the produced interonset intervals (sub-second vs. supra-second). Using a dual-task paradigm, the current study addressed these factors in the temporal control of cellists’ bowing movements. Cellists performed melodies in a synchronization-continuation timing task at a specified fast (intertone interval = 700 ms) or slow (intertone interval = 1,100 ms) tempo with either discrete (staccato) or continuous (legato) bowing movements. A secondary working memory task involved a concurrent digit-switch counting task. Analyses of the produced tone durations showed that the working memory load significantly impaired temporal regularity when the melodies were performed with discrete bowing movements at the slower tempo. In addition, discrete movements led to more errors on the working memory task. These findings suggest that continuous body movements provide temporal control information to performers under high cognitive load conditions.
Keywords
TASKS, MOTOR CONTROL, INTERFERENCE, CEREBELLAR, INTERVALS, TIME, SYNCHRONIZATION, VARIABILITY, RESOURCES, RESPONSES, Timing, Working memory, Discrete movements, Continuous movements, Music performance

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MLA
Maes, Pieter-Jan, Marcelo Wanderley, and Caroline Palmer. “The Role of Working Memory in the Temporal Control of Discrete and Continuous Movements.” EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 233.1 (2015): 263–273. Print.
APA
Maes, P.-J., Wanderley, M., & Palmer, C. (2015). The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH, 233(1), 263–273.
Chicago author-date
Maes, Pieter-Jan, Marcelo Wanderley, and Caroline Palmer. 2015. “The Role of Working Memory in the Temporal Control of Discrete and Continuous Movements.” Experimental Brain Research 233 (1): 263–273.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Maes, Pieter-Jan, Marcelo Wanderley, and Caroline Palmer. 2015. “The Role of Working Memory in the Temporal Control of Discrete and Continuous Movements.” Experimental Brain Research 233 (1): 263–273.
Vancouver
1.
Maes P-J, Wanderley M, Palmer C. The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements. EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH. Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2015;233(1):263–73.
IEEE
[1]
P.-J. Maes, M. Wanderley, and C. Palmer, “The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements,” EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 263–273, 2015.
@article{5730036,
  abstract     = {{Music performance requires precise control of limb movements in order to achieve temporal precision of performed tone onsets. Previous findings suggest that processes recruited for the temporal control of rhythmic body movements, such as those required in music performance, depend on the movement type (discrete vs. continuous) and the rate of the produced interonset intervals (sub-second vs. supra-second). Using a dual-task paradigm, the current study addressed these factors in the temporal control of cellists’ bowing movements. Cellists performed melodies in a synchronization-continuation timing task at a specified fast (intertone interval = 700 ms) or slow (intertone interval = 1,100 ms) tempo with either discrete (staccato) or continuous (legato) bowing movements. A secondary working memory task involved a concurrent digit-switch counting task. Analyses of the produced tone durations showed that the working memory load significantly impaired temporal regularity when the melodies were performed with discrete bowing movements at the slower tempo. In addition, discrete movements led to more errors on the working memory task. These findings suggest that continuous body movements provide temporal control information to performers under high cognitive load conditions.}},
  author       = {{Maes, Pieter-Jan and Wanderley, Marcelo and Palmer, Caroline}},
  issn         = {{0014-4819}},
  journal      = {{EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{TASKS,MOTOR CONTROL,INTERFERENCE,CEREBELLAR,INTERVALS,TIME,SYNCHRONIZATION,VARIABILITY,RESOURCES,RESPONSES,Timing,Working memory,Discrete movements,Continuous movements,Music performance}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{263--273}},
  publisher    = {{Springer Berlin Heidelberg}},
  title        = {{The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-014-4108-5}},
  volume       = {{233}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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