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Learning through instructions vs. learning through practice: flanker congruency effects from instructed and applied S-R mappings

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Abstract
We compared flanker congruency effects (FCE) for flanker stimuli that were part of merely instructed S-R mappings or S-R mappings that had already been practiced. Four new S-R mappings were instructed before each block of trials. In applied flanker blocks, each instructed stimulus could appear as target and as flanker. In merely instructed flanker blocks, two stimuli only served as targets, whereas the other two exclusively appeared as flankers. Significant FCEs were observed for both flanker conditions even though the instruction-based FCE was (a) smaller than the FCE from applied mappings and (b) decreased with task practice. These results suggest that instructions alone can induce S-R associations that lead to automatic response activation when instructed stimuli appear as flankers. Execution of instructed rules seems to strengthen the instructed associations, leading to increased response conflict.
Keywords
WORKING-MEMORY, CONFLICT ADAPTATION, FRONTOPARIETAL CORTEX, RESPONSE ACTIVATION, COGNITIVE CONTROL, FEATURE BINDING, TASK, ASSOCIATIONS, INFORMATION, INTERFERENCE

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MLA
Wenke, Dorit, Jan De Houwer, Jeffrey De Winne, et al. “Learning Through Instructions Vs. Learning Through Practice: Flanker Congruency Effects from Instructed and Applied S-R Mappings.” PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 79.6 (2015): 899–912. Print.
APA
Wenke, D., De Houwer, J., De Winne, J., & Liefooghe, B. (2015). Learning through instructions vs. learning through practice: flanker congruency effects from instructed and applied S-R mappings. PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG, 79(6), 899–912.
Chicago author-date
Wenke, Dorit, Jan De Houwer, Jeffrey De Winne, and Baptist Liefooghe. 2015. “Learning Through Instructions Vs. Learning Through Practice: Flanker Congruency Effects from Instructed and Applied S-R Mappings.” Psychological Research-psychologische Forschung 79 (6): 899–912.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wenke, Dorit, Jan De Houwer, Jeffrey De Winne, and Baptist Liefooghe. 2015. “Learning Through Instructions Vs. Learning Through Practice: Flanker Congruency Effects from Instructed and Applied S-R Mappings.” Psychological Research-psychologische Forschung 79 (6): 899–912.
Vancouver
1.
Wenke D, De Houwer J, De Winne J, Liefooghe B. Learning through instructions vs. learning through practice: flanker congruency effects from instructed and applied S-R mappings. PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG. 2015;79(6):899–912.
IEEE
[1]
D. Wenke, J. De Houwer, J. De Winne, and B. Liefooghe, “Learning through instructions vs. learning through practice: flanker congruency effects from instructed and applied S-R mappings,” PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 899–912, 2015.
@article{5725475,
  abstract     = {We compared flanker congruency effects (FCE) for flanker stimuli that were part of merely instructed S-R mappings or S-R mappings that had already been practiced. Four new S-R mappings were instructed before each block of trials. In applied flanker blocks, each instructed stimulus could appear as target and as flanker. In merely instructed flanker blocks, two stimuli only served as targets, whereas the other two exclusively appeared as flankers. Significant FCEs were observed for both flanker conditions even though the instruction-based FCE was (a) smaller than the FCE from applied mappings and (b) decreased with task practice. These results suggest that instructions alone can induce S-R associations that lead to automatic response activation when instructed stimuli appear as flankers. Execution of instructed rules seems to strengthen the instructed associations, leading to increased response conflict.},
  author       = {Wenke, Dorit and De Houwer, Jan and De Winne, Jeffrey and Liefooghe, Baptist},
  issn         = {0340-0727},
  journal      = {PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG},
  keywords     = {WORKING-MEMORY,CONFLICT ADAPTATION,FRONTOPARIETAL CORTEX,RESPONSE ACTIVATION,COGNITIVE CONTROL,FEATURE BINDING,TASK,ASSOCIATIONS,INFORMATION,INTERFERENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {899--912},
  title        = {Learning through instructions vs. learning through practice: flanker congruency effects from instructed and applied S-R mappings},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-014-0621-1},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2015},
}

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