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An archaeological mystery revealed by radiocarbon dating of cross-flow nanofiltrated amino acids derived from bone collagen, silk, and hair: case study of the bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai

(2014) RADIOCARBON. 56(2). p.603-617
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Abstract
Excavations in the cathedral of Tournai revealed two sepultures, which were identified by the excavators as those of bishops because of their special location in the cathedral. One burial was assigned to Baldwin I, who died in AD 1068, because (1) a ring with the inscription "BAL" was found and (2) a funeral stone with text was present on top of the grave mentioning the name Baldewinus. The second burial probably belongs to Radbot II, who was the successor of Baldwin I, and died in AD 1098. Both burials contained textiles (silk), the skeleton, a wooden pastoral staff, and human hair was still present on the skull of what was presumed to be Radbot II. All the protein-containing materials were degraded and/or contaminated. Standard sample pretreatment methods were not able to remove all the contaminants. Single and double cross-flow nanofiltration of the hydrolyzed protein-containing materials were performed. The sample quality for radiocarbon dating was improved and C-14 data revealed interesting and surprising results. The C-14 dates of the wooden pastoral staff and permeate femur confirm that the skeleton and tomb belong to bishop Baldwin I. The C-14 dates of hair and permeate skull indicate that the skeleton may indeed belong to bishop Radbot II. The younger C-14 dates of the wooden pastoral staff and silk samples indicate a postburial disturbance of the site burial during the 12th-13th century.
Keywords
PROGRAM, QUALITY, DIET, WOOL, CALIBRATION

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Chicago
Boudin, Mathieu, Pascal Boeckx, Peter Vandenabeele, and Mark Van Strydonck. 2014. “An Archaeological Mystery Revealed by Radiocarbon Dating of Cross-flow Nanofiltrated Amino Acids Derived from Bone Collagen, Silk, and Hair: Case Study of the Bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai.” Radiocarbon 56 (2): 603–617.
APA
Boudin, M., Boeckx, P., Vandenabeele, P., & Van Strydonck, M. (2014). An archaeological mystery revealed by radiocarbon dating of cross-flow nanofiltrated amino acids derived from bone collagen, silk, and hair: case study of the bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai. RADIOCARBON, 56(2), 603–617.
Vancouver
1.
Boudin M, Boeckx P, Vandenabeele P, Van Strydonck M. An archaeological mystery revealed by radiocarbon dating of cross-flow nanofiltrated amino acids derived from bone collagen, silk, and hair: case study of the bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai. RADIOCARBON. 2014;56(2):603–17.
MLA
Boudin, Mathieu, Pascal Boeckx, Peter Vandenabeele, et al. “An Archaeological Mystery Revealed by Radiocarbon Dating of Cross-flow Nanofiltrated Amino Acids Derived from Bone Collagen, Silk, and Hair: Case Study of the Bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai.” RADIOCARBON 56.2 (2014): 603–617. Print.
@article{5723482,
  abstract     = {Excavations in the cathedral of Tournai revealed two sepultures, which were identified by the excavators as those of bishops because of their special location in the cathedral. One burial was assigned to Baldwin I, who died in AD 1068, because (1) a ring with the inscription {\textacutedbl}BAL{\textacutedbl} was found and (2) a funeral stone with text was present on top of the grave mentioning the name Baldewinus. The second burial probably belongs to Radbot II, who was the successor of Baldwin I, and died in AD 1098. Both burials contained textiles (silk), the skeleton, a wooden pastoral staff, and human hair was still present on the skull of what was presumed to be Radbot II. All the protein-containing materials were degraded and/or contaminated. Standard sample pretreatment methods were not able to remove all the contaminants. Single and double cross-flow nanofiltration of the hydrolyzed protein-containing materials were performed. The sample quality for radiocarbon dating was improved and C-14 data revealed interesting and surprising results. The C-14 dates of the wooden pastoral staff and permeate femur confirm that the skeleton and tomb belong to bishop Baldwin I. The C-14 dates of hair and permeate skull indicate that the skeleton may indeed belong to bishop Radbot II. The younger C-14 dates of the wooden pastoral staff and silk samples indicate a postburial disturbance of the site burial during the 12th-13th century.},
  author       = {Boudin, Mathieu and Boeckx, Pascal and Vandenabeele, Peter and Van Strydonck, Mark},
  issn         = {0033-8222},
  journal      = {RADIOCARBON},
  keyword      = {PROGRAM,QUALITY,DIET,WOOL,CALIBRATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {603--617},
  title        = {An archaeological mystery revealed by radiocarbon dating of cross-flow nanofiltrated amino acids derived from bone collagen, silk, and hair: case study of the bishops Baldwin I and Radbot II from Noyon-Tournai},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2458/56.16951},
  volume       = {56},
  year         = {2014},
}

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