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Chronic progressive lymphedema in the Belgian draft horse in Belgium: clinical phenotyping, prevalence and risk factor analysis

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Abstract
Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) is a well-known problem in the Belgian draft horse. However, tools for clinical diagnosis have not been standardized. Therefore, the exact disease prevalence and the possible CPL risk factors have not been investigated in the Belgian breed yet. The aim of the present study was to assess a uniform CPL clinical examination method to increase diagnostic objectivity as well as to determine the occurrence and severity of lesions. Using univariate and stepwise multivariable logistic regression models, the association of factors, such as age-gender interaction, coat color and season, with CPL occurrence was examined. In this study, it was demonstrated that CPL is highly prevalent in the Belgian draft horse: 60.66% of the horses of the total sample were affected, including a large proportion of young horses (<3 years), whereas 85.86% was affected in a subset of older horses (>= 3 years). In the latter, the lesions were more explicit as CPL is a chronic disorder. In some horses (i.e. 14% of the yearlings), mild clinical symptoms appeared at approximately the age of one, while distinct onset of the disease occurred from the age of three onwards. The factors age-gender interaction, coat color and season, which are significantly associated with CPL occurrence, were identified and quantified. In this study, a standardized diagnostic protocol is proposed that will enhance future data collection and furthermore will offer a foundation for quantitative genetic research. Ultimately, it will help to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian draft horse by means of selection.
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PASTERN DERMATITIS

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Chicago
De Keyser, K, S Janssens, LM Peeters, Frank Gasthuys, Maarten Oosterlinck, and N Buys. 2014. “Chronic Progressive Lymphedema in the Belgian Draft Horse in Belgium: Clinical Phenotyping, Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 83 (3): 119–124.
APA
De Keyser, K, Janssens, S., Peeters, L., Gasthuys, F., Oosterlinck, M., & Buys, N. (2014). Chronic progressive lymphedema in the Belgian draft horse in Belgium: clinical phenotyping, prevalence and risk factor analysis. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 83(3), 119–124.
Vancouver
1.
De Keyser K, Janssens S, Peeters L, Gasthuys F, Oosterlinck M, Buys N. Chronic progressive lymphedema in the Belgian draft horse in Belgium: clinical phenotyping, prevalence and risk factor analysis. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2014;83(3):119–24.
MLA
De Keyser, K, S Janssens, LM Peeters, et al. “Chronic Progressive Lymphedema in the Belgian Draft Horse in Belgium: Clinical Phenotyping, Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 83.3 (2014): 119–124. Print.
@article{5719864,
  abstract     = {Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) is a well-known problem in the Belgian draft horse. However, tools for clinical diagnosis have not been standardized. Therefore, the exact disease prevalence and the possible CPL risk factors have not been investigated in the Belgian breed yet. The aim of the present study was to assess a uniform CPL clinical examination method to increase diagnostic objectivity as well as to determine the occurrence and severity of lesions. Using univariate and stepwise multivariable logistic regression models, the association of factors, such as age-gender interaction, coat color and season, with CPL occurrence was examined. In this study, it was demonstrated that CPL is highly prevalent in the Belgian draft horse: 60.66\% of the horses of the total sample were affected, including a large proportion of young horses ({\textlangle}3 years), whereas 85.86\% was affected in a subset of older horses ({\textrangle}= 3 years). In the latter, the lesions were more explicit as CPL is a chronic disorder. In some horses (i.e. 14\% of the yearlings), mild clinical symptoms appeared at approximately the age of one, while distinct onset of the disease occurred from the age of three onwards. The factors age-gender interaction, coat color and season, which are significantly associated with CPL occurrence, were identified and quantified. In this study, a standardized diagnostic protocol is proposed that will enhance future data collection and furthermore will offer a foundation for quantitative genetic research. Ultimately, it will help to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian draft horse by means of selection.},
  author       = {De Keyser, K and Janssens, S and Peeters, LM and Gasthuys, Frank and Oosterlinck, Maarten and Buys, N},
  issn         = {0303-9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  keyword      = {PASTERN DERMATITIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {119--124},
  title        = {Chronic progressive lymphedema in the Belgian draft horse in Belgium: clinical phenotyping, prevalence and risk factor analysis},
  url          = {http://vdt.ugent.be/sites/default/files/artikel03\_1.pdf},
  volume       = {83},
  year         = {2014},
}

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