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Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

Kerim Schellingen, Dominique Van Der Straeten UGent, Filip Vandenbussche UGent, Els Prinsen, Tony Remans, Jaco Vangronsveld and Ann Cuypers (2014) BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. 14.
abstract
Background: Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results: Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions: Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and mutant plants.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
FAMILY, COPPER, CD, TOMATO, PLANT-GROWTH, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, HORMONAL CHANGES, SOLANUM-LYCOPERSICON L., HEAVY-METAL STRESS, Gene expression, ENCODING 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE, Ethylene, Cadmium, Arabidopsis thaliana, acs2-1acs6-1 knockout mutant, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid
journal title
BMC PLANT BIOLOGY
BMC Plant Biol.
volume
14
article number
214
pages
14 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000341317800001
JCR category
PLANT SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
3.813 (2014)
JCR rank
22/204 (2014)
JCR quartile
1 (2014)
ISSN
1471-2229
DOI
10.1186/s12870-014-0214-6
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
5714517
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-5714517
date created
2014-10-01 10:58:58
date last changed
2016-12-21 15:41:58
@article{5714517,
  abstract     = {Background: Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. 
Results: Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. 
Conclusions: Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and mutant plants.},
  articleno    = {214},
  author       = {Schellingen, Kerim and Van Der Straeten, Dominique and Vandenbussche, Filip and Prinsen, Els and Remans, Tony and Vangronsveld, Jaco and Cuypers, Ann},
  issn         = {1471-2229},
  journal      = {BMC PLANT BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {FAMILY,COPPER,CD,TOMATO,PLANT-GROWTH,MASS-SPECTROMETRY,HORMONAL CHANGES,SOLANUM-LYCOPERSICON L.,HEAVY-METAL STRESS,Gene expression,ENCODING 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE,Ethylene,Cadmium,Arabidopsis thaliana,acs2-1acs6-1 knockout mutant,1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-014-0214-6},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

Chicago
Schellingen, Kerim, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Filip Vandenbussche, Els Prinsen, Tony Remans, Jaco Vangronsveld, and Ann Cuypers. 2014. “Cadmium-induced Ethylene Production and Responses in Arabidopsis Thaliana Rely on ACS2 and ACS6 Gene Expression.” Bmc Plant Biology 14.
APA
Schellingen, K., Van Der Straeten, D., Vandenbussche, F., Prinsen, E., Remans, T., Vangronsveld, J., & Cuypers, A. (2014). Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 14.
Vancouver
1.
Schellingen K, Van Der Straeten D, Vandenbussche F, Prinsen E, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, et al. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. 2014;14.
MLA
Schellingen, Kerim, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Filip Vandenbussche, et al. “Cadmium-induced Ethylene Production and Responses in Arabidopsis Thaliana Rely on ACS2 and ACS6 Gene Expression.” BMC PLANT BIOLOGY 14 (2014): n. pag. Print.