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Metabolic fingerprinting of Gouda cheese ripening by NMR spectroscopy

Author
Organization
Abstract
High sodium intake has been linked to health risks such as hypertension and coronary heart diseases, nevertheless data show that sodium consumption in Western countries is higher than nutritional recommendations. While the health risks associated with excessive sodium intake can be addressed by the development of sodium reduced food, it has been found that, e.g. cheese with decreased sodium content might display adverse sensorial effects (1). We studied the metabolic changes in salt reduced Gouda cheese under various conditions and employed metabolic fingerprinting by NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis by PCA (2) to detect variations. We followed fingerprint changes observed between different batches, the evolution along the ripening time and finally the effect of different brining conditions in combination with and without the utilisation of adjunct culture of Streptococcus macedonicus. The metabolic changes detected have shown that NMR spectroscopy is a suitable method to follow secondary proteolysis during ripening. The greatest variation between the cheese samples was caused by the ripening time. The statistical analysis showed a higher metabolite content in function of maturation. Cheese salted with a mixture of NaCl / KCl had approximately equal quantity of metabolites of the secondary proteolysis process as the cheese salted with NaCl only. Gouda cheeses made by the addition of the adjunct culture S. macedonicus showed a small, but reproducible difference in their chemical fingerprints from that of the reference cheese samples. We show that NMR spectroscopic analysis combined with multivariate analysis provides useful insights in some aspects of cheese characterisation and quality control. References Adriano G. Cruz, José A.F. Faria, Marise A.R. Pollonio, Helena M.A. Bolini, Renata M.S. Celeghini, Daniel Granato, Nagendra P. Shah Cheeses with reduced sodium content: Effects on functionality, public health benefits and sensory properties Trends in Food Science & Technology Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 276-291 McKenzie JS, Donarski JA, Wilson JC, Charlton AJ. Analysis of complex mixtures using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2011 Nov; 59(4):336-59
Keywords
NMR spectroscopy, metabonomics, metabolic fingerprinting

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MLA
Fehér, Krisztina, Tony Ruyssen, Nathan Van der Eecken, et al. “Metabolic Fingerprinting of Gouda Cheese Ripening by NMR Spectroscopy.” Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint Symposium, Abstracts. 2013. Print.
APA
Fehér, K., Ruyssen, T., Van der Eecken, N., De Meerleer, M., De Vuyst, L., & Martins, J. (2013). Metabolic fingerprinting of Gouda cheese ripening by NMR spectroscopy. Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint symposium, Abstracts. Presented at the 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint symposium on Metabolomics: Translational approaches in metabolomics.
Chicago author-date
Fehér, Krisztina, Tony Ruyssen, Nathan Van der Eecken, Marianne De Meerleer, Luc De Vuyst, and José Martins. 2013. “Metabolic Fingerprinting of Gouda Cheese Ripening by NMR Spectroscopy.” In Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint Symposium, Abstracts.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Fehér, Krisztina, Tony Ruyssen, Nathan Van der Eecken, Marianne De Meerleer, Luc De Vuyst, and José Martins. 2013. “Metabolic Fingerprinting of Gouda Cheese Ripening by NMR Spectroscopy.” In Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint Symposium, Abstracts.
Vancouver
1.
Fehér K, Ruyssen T, Van der Eecken N, De Meerleer M, De Vuyst L, Martins J. Metabolic fingerprinting of Gouda cheese ripening by NMR spectroscopy. Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint symposium, Abstracts. 2013.
IEEE
[1]
K. Fehér, T. Ruyssen, N. Van der Eecken, M. De Meerleer, L. De Vuyst, and J. Martins, “Metabolic fingerprinting of Gouda cheese ripening by NMR spectroscopy,” in Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint symposium, Abstracts, Spa, Belgium, 2013.
@inproceedings{5712287,
  abstract     = {High sodium intake has been linked to health risks such as hypertension and coronary heart diseases, nevertheless data show that sodium consumption in Western countries is higher than nutritional recommendations. While the health risks associated with excessive sodium intake can be addressed by the development of sodium reduced food, it has been found that, e.g.  cheese with decreased sodium content might display adverse sensorial effects (1). We studied the metabolic changes in salt reduced Gouda cheese under various conditions and employed metabolic fingerprinting by NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis by PCA (2) to detect variations. We followed fingerprint changes observed between different batches, the evolution along the ripening time and finally the effect of different brining conditions in combination with and without the utilisation of adjunct culture of Streptococcus macedonicus.
The metabolic changes detected have shown that NMR spectroscopy is a suitable method to follow secondary proteolysis during ripening. The greatest variation between the cheese samples was caused by the ripening time. The statistical analysis showed a higher metabolite content in function of maturation. Cheese salted with a mixture of NaCl / KCl had approximately equal quantity of metabolites of the secondary proteolysis process as the cheese salted with NaCl only. Gouda cheeses made by the addition of the adjunct culture S. macedonicus showed a small, but reproducible difference in their chemical fingerprints from that of the reference cheese samples. We show that NMR spectroscopic analysis combined with multivariate analysis provides useful insights in some aspects of cheese characterisation and quality control.
References
Adriano G. Cruz, José A.F. Faria, Marise A.R. Pollonio, Helena M.A. Bolini, Renata M.S. Celeghini, Daniel Granato, Nagendra P. Shah Cheeses with reduced sodium content: Effects on functionality, public health benefits and sensory properties Trends in Food Science & Technology Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 276-291
McKenzie JS, Donarski JA, Wilson JC, Charlton AJ. Analysis of complex mixtures using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2011 Nov; 59(4):336-59},
  author       = {Fehér, Krisztina and Ruyssen, Tony and Van der Eecken, Nathan and De Meerleer, Marianne and De Vuyst, Luc and Martins, José},
  booktitle    = {Metabolomics, 1st Belgian-Netherlands Joint symposium, Abstracts},
  keywords     = {NMR spectroscopy,metabonomics,metabolic fingerprinting},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Spa, Belgium},
  title        = {Metabolic fingerprinting of Gouda cheese ripening by NMR spectroscopy},
  year         = {2013},
}