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Dental age estimation in Malay children based on all permanent teeth types

(2013) JOURNAL OF FORENSIC ODONTO-STOMATOLOGY. 31(suppl. 1). p.85-86
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Abstract
Background: Since the early study by Demirjian and co-workers in 1973, the Demirjian method has been widely used as a method of choice for dental age estimation. However, due to overwhelming discrepancies in arriving at accurate estimated age by several subsequent studies, Willems and co-workers has modified the statistical method of original study by performing a weighted ANOVA on Belgian children in order to adapt to the scoring system. The purpose of this study was to i) evaluate the applicability of the Willems dental age estimation method in Malay children ii) develop and verify a Malay-specific age prediction model based on the Willems method and iii) to assess the age prediction accuracy by adding third molar information in the Willems model. Method: Panoramic radiographs (n=1403) of Malay children aged between 4 and 14.9 years (n=702) and sub-adults aged between 15 and 23.9 years (n=701) were collected. This sample was split in a reference sample to develop a Malay-specific prediction model based on the Willems method and in a test sample to validate this new developed model. The left mandibular seven permanent teeth of the children were scored based on the staging technique described by Demirjian and converted to age using the Willems method. Next, the incorporation of third molars into this model was analysed. Third molar development of all individuals was staged based on the technique described by Gleiser and Hunt modified by Kohler. Differences between dental age and chronological age were calculated and expressed in mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE). Results: The Willems model applied on the collected Malay children overestimated chronological age on average (ME) 0.45 years (SD = 1.4 years). Small differences in ME, MAE, and RMSE between the verified Malay-specific prediction model and the Willems model were observed. An overall neglected decrease in RMSE was detected adding third molar stages to the developed permanent teeth model. Conclusion: Although the Willems model verified on Malaysian children overestimates chronological age, no strong indication was found that warrants the development of a Malaysian-specific prediction model based on a large Malaysian reference sample. Adding age-related third molar development information to age-related permanent teeth information is only ameliorating the age prediction accuracy in the age group of children between 14 and 16 years.
Keywords
Age estimation, Forensic Odontology, Willem’s Method, Malay Children

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Chicago
Mohd Yusof, Mohd, Patrick Thevissen, Steffen Fieuws, and Guy Willems. 2013. “Dental Age Estimation in Malay Children Based on All Permanent Teeth Types.” In Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology, 31:85–86.
APA
Mohd Yusof, M., Thevissen, P., Fieuws, S., & Willems, G. (2013). Dental age estimation in Malay children based on all permanent teeth types. JOURNAL OF FORENSIC ODONTO-STOMATOLOGY (Vol. 31, pp. 85–86). Presented at the International congress of IOFOS 2013.
Vancouver
1.
Mohd Yusof M, Thevissen P, Fieuws S, Willems G. Dental age estimation in Malay children based on all permanent teeth types. JOURNAL OF FORENSIC ODONTO-STOMATOLOGY. 2013. p. 85–6.
MLA
Mohd Yusof, Mohd, Patrick Thevissen, Steffen Fieuws, et al. “Dental Age Estimation in Malay Children Based on All Permanent Teeth Types.” Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology. Vol. 31. 2013. 85–86. Print.
@inproceedings{5710059,
  abstract     = {Background: Since the early study by Demirjian and co-workers in 1973, the Demirjian method has been widely used as a method of choice for dental age estimation. However, due to overwhelming discrepancies in arriving at accurate estimated age by several subsequent studies, Willems and co-workers has modified the statistical method of original study by performing a weighted ANOVA on Belgian children in order to adapt to the scoring system. The purpose of this study was to i) evaluate the applicability of the Willems dental age estimation method in Malay children ii) develop and verify a Malay-specific age prediction model based on the Willems method and iii) to assess the age prediction accuracy by adding third molar information in the Willems model.
Method: Panoramic radiographs (n=1403) of Malay children aged between 4 and 14.9 years (n=702) and sub-adults aged between 15 and 23.9 years (n=701) were collected. This sample was split in a reference sample to develop a Malay-specific prediction model based on the Willems method and in a test sample to validate this new developed model. The left mandibular seven permanent teeth of the children were scored based on the staging technique described by Demirjian and converted to age using the Willems method. Next, the incorporation of third molars into this model was analysed. Third molar development of all individuals was staged based on the technique described by Gleiser and Hunt modified by Kohler. Differences between dental age and chronological age were calculated and expressed in mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE).
Results: The Willems model applied on the collected Malay children overestimated chronological age on average (ME) 0.45 years (SD = 1.4 years). Small differences in ME, MAE, and RMSE between the verified Malay-specific prediction model and the Willems model were observed. An overall neglected decrease in RMSE was detected adding third molar stages to the developed permanent teeth model.
Conclusion: Although the Willems model verified on Malaysian children overestimates chronological age, no strong indication was found that warrants the development of a Malaysian-specific prediction model based on a large Malaysian reference sample. Adding age-related third molar development information to age-related permanent teeth information is only ameliorating the age prediction accuracy in the age group of children between 14 and 16 years.},
  articleno    = {62},
  author       = {Mohd Yusof, Mohd and Thevissen, Patrick and Fieuws, Steffen and Willems, Guy},
  booktitle    = {JOURNAL OF FORENSIC ODONTO-STOMATOLOGY},
  issn         = {2219-6749},
  keyword      = {Age estimation,Forensic Odontology,Willem{\textquoteright}s Method,Malay Children},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Firenze, Italy},
  number       = {suppl. 1},
  pages        = {62:85--62:86},
  title        = {Dental age estimation in Malay children based on all permanent teeth types},
  url          = {http://www.iofos.eu/Journals/JFOS\%20sup1\_Oct13/62.pdf},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2013},
}