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Increased activity and growth rate in the non-dispersive aquatic larval stage of a damselfly at an expanding range edge

(2014) FRESHWATER BIOLOGY. 59(6). p.1266-1277
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Abstract
While evolutionary changes in adult traits during range expansion have been recorded in many species, similar changes in the non-dispersive larval stage have only rarely been documented. Increased activity in the non-dispersive larval stage is an important ecologically relevant trait in aquatic communities that may be expected to evolve in the edge populations (i) as a result of the combination of spatial sorting in dispersal-related adult activity and a coupling between adult and larval behaviour and (ii) to meet higher energy demands to allow higher growth rates and a higher investment in costly dispersal-related traits. We specifically address whether activity is higher in the larval non-dispersive aquatic stage at an expanding range front by comparing larvae of replicated core and edge populations of the damselfly Coenagrion scitulum in three common garden experiments where larvae were reared from the egg stage. As expected, activity in the non-dispersive larval stage was consistently higher in the edge populations. Although changes in larval activity probably have consequences for ecological interactions, the higher activity was not associated with increased predation rates by dragonfly larvae, potentially because of associated compensatory changes in other antipredator mechanisms. We documented one of the few cases of a positive coupling of activity in the larval and adult stages. Yet, contrary to larval activity, adult activity did not differ between core and edge populations. This indicates that the higher larval activity we documented is not shaped by a coupling with adult activity. Instead, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher energy need in edge populations shaped the higher larval activity. Edge larvae showed a higher growth rate which is expected to evolve at the initial low population densities in newly founded edge populations. Moreover, higher growth rate showed the expected positive covariation with larval activity. Increases in activity in the non-dispersive stage in edge populations at an expansion front should be included in the ongoing debate whether evolutionary changes at invasion fronts are driven by adaptive versus non-adaptive evolution. Moreover, they may have the potential to affect ecological interactions at expanding range fronts.
Keywords
SHAPE, BEHAVIOR, PREDATION, CLIMATE-CHANGE, REACTION NORMS, ODONATE LARVAE, RAPID EVOLUTION, COENAGRION-SCITULUM, LIFE-HISTORY, global change, RISK TRADE-OFF, life-history evolution, behavioural coupling, range expansion, Odonata

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Citation

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Chicago
Therry, Lieven, Evelien Lefevre, Dries Bonte, and Robby Stoks. 2014. “Increased Activity and Growth Rate in the Non-dispersive Aquatic Larval Stage of a Damselfly at an Expanding Range Edge.” Freshwater Biology 59 (6): 1266–1277.
APA
Therry, Lieven, Lefevre, E., Bonte, D., & Stoks, R. (2014). Increased activity and growth rate in the non-dispersive aquatic larval stage of a damselfly at an expanding range edge. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, 59(6), 1266–1277.
Vancouver
1.
Therry L, Lefevre E, Bonte D, Stoks R. Increased activity and growth rate in the non-dispersive aquatic larval stage of a damselfly at an expanding range edge. FRESHWATER BIOLOGY. 2014;59(6):1266–77.
MLA
Therry, Lieven, Evelien Lefevre, Dries Bonte, et al. “Increased Activity and Growth Rate in the Non-dispersive Aquatic Larval Stage of a Damselfly at an Expanding Range Edge.” FRESHWATER BIOLOGY 59.6 (2014): 1266–1277. Print.
@article{5705498,
  abstract     = {While evolutionary changes in adult traits during range expansion have been recorded in many species, similar changes in the non-dispersive larval stage have only rarely been documented. Increased activity in the non-dispersive larval stage is an important ecologically relevant trait in aquatic communities that may be expected to evolve in the edge populations (i) as a result of the combination of spatial sorting in dispersal-related adult activity and a coupling between adult and larval behaviour and (ii) to meet higher energy demands to allow higher growth rates and a higher investment in costly dispersal-related traits. 
We specifically address whether activity is higher in the larval non-dispersive aquatic stage at an expanding range front by comparing larvae of replicated core and edge populations of the damselfly Coenagrion scitulum in three common garden experiments where larvae were reared from the egg stage. 
As expected, activity in the non-dispersive larval stage was consistently higher in the edge populations. Although changes in larval activity probably have consequences for ecological interactions, the higher activity was not associated with increased predation rates by dragonfly larvae, potentially because of associated compensatory changes in other antipredator mechanisms. 
We documented one of the few cases of a positive coupling of activity in the larval and adult stages. Yet, contrary to larval activity, adult activity did not differ between core and edge populations. This indicates that the higher larval activity we documented is not shaped by a coupling with adult activity. Instead, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher energy need in edge populations shaped the higher larval activity. Edge larvae showed a higher growth rate which is expected to evolve at the initial low population densities in newly founded edge populations. Moreover, higher growth rate showed the expected positive covariation with larval activity. 
Increases in activity in the non-dispersive stage in edge populations at an expansion front should be included in the ongoing debate whether evolutionary changes at invasion fronts are driven by adaptive versus non-adaptive evolution. Moreover, they may have the potential to affect ecological interactions at expanding range fronts.},
  author       = {Therry, Lieven and Lefevre, Evelien and Bonte, Dries and Stoks, Robby},
  issn         = {0046-5070},
  journal      = {FRESHWATER BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {SHAPE,BEHAVIOR,PREDATION,CLIMATE-CHANGE,REACTION NORMS,ODONATE LARVAE,RAPID EVOLUTION,COENAGRION-SCITULUM,LIFE-HISTORY,global change,RISK TRADE-OFF,life-history evolution,behavioural coupling,range expansion,Odonata},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1266--1277},
  title        = {Increased activity and growth rate in the non-dispersive aquatic larval stage of a damselfly at an expanding range edge},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12346},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2014},
}

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