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African-European contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries): new archaeological insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC)

Author
Organization
Project
KONGOKING (Political centralization, economic integration and language evolution in Central Africa: An interdisciplinary approach to the early history of the Kongo kingdom.)
Abstract
Ngongo Mbata, the main and most affluent center of the Kongo kingdom’s Mbata province in the 17th century, is well known from the historical sources, but virtually unexplored in archaeological publications. Ngongo Mbata is unique in that it hosted a monumental stone building about which the historical record remains silent. This makes it particularly challenging from the point of view of historical archaeology. In this paper historical data, unpublished excavation results from the 1930s and our own fieldwork undertaken in 2012-2013 are brought together, to tell a new story of early African-European contacts in the interior of West Central Africa.
Keywords
COAST, ORIGIN, HISTORY, urbanism, Central Africa, Christianity, church

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Citation

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Chicago
Clist, Bernard-Olivier, Els Cranshof, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, Davy Herremans, Karlis Karklins, Igor Matonda Sakala, Fanny Steyaert, and Koen Bostoen. 2015. “African-European Contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth Centuries): New Archaeological Insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC).” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 19 (3): 464–501.
APA
Clist, B.-O., Cranshof, E., de Schryver, G.-M., Herremans, D., Karklins, K., Matonda Sakala, I., Steyaert, F., et al. (2015). African-European contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries): new archaeological insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, 19(3), 464–501.
Vancouver
1.
Clist B-O, Cranshof E, de Schryver G-M, Herremans D, Karklins K, Matonda Sakala I, et al. African-European contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries): new archaeological insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. Springer; 2015;19(3):464–501.
MLA
Clist, Bernard-Olivier, Els Cranshof, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver, et al. “African-European Contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth Centuries): New Archaeological Insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC).” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 19.3 (2015): 464–501. Print.
@article{5704437,
  abstract     = {Ngongo Mbata, the main and most affluent center of the Kongo kingdom{\textquoteright}s Mbata province in the 17th century, is well known from the historical sources, but virtually unexplored in archaeological publications. Ngongo Mbata is unique in that it hosted a monumental stone building about which the historical record remains silent. This makes it particularly challenging from the point of view of historical archaeology. In this paper historical data, unpublished excavation results from the 1930s and our own fieldwork undertaken in 2012-2013 are brought together, to tell a new story of early African-European contacts in the interior of West Central Africa.},
  author       = {Clist, Bernard-Olivier and Cranshof, Els and de Schryver, Gilles-Maurice and Herremans, Davy and Karklins, Karlis and Matonda Sakala, Igor and Steyaert, Fanny and Bostoen, Koen},
  issn         = {1092-7697},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY},
  keyword      = {COAST,ORIGIN,HISTORY,urbanism,Central Africa,Christianity,church},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {464--501},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  title        = {African-European contacts in the Kongo Kingdom (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries): new archaeological insights from Ngongo Mbata (Lower Congo, DRC)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10761-015-0296-3},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2015},
}

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