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Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells

Ranhua Xiong (UGent) , Koen Raemdonck (UGent) , Karen Peynshaert (UGent) , Ine Lentacker (UGent) , Ine De Cock (UGent) , Jo Demeester (UGent) , Stefaan De Smedt (UGent) , Andre Skirtach (UGent) and Kevin Braeckmans (UGent)
(2014) ACS NANO. 8(6). p.6288-6296
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Center for nano- and biophotonics (NB-Photonics)
Abstract
There is a great interest in delivering macromolecular agents into living cells for therapeutic purposes, such as siRNA for gene silencing. Although substantial effort has gone into designing nonviral nanocarriers for delivering macromolecules into cells, translocation of the therapeutic molecules from the endosomes after endocytosis into the cytoplasm remains a major bottleneck. Laser-induced photoporation, especially in combination with gold nanoparticles, is an alternative physical method that is receiving increasing attention for delivering macromolecules in cells. By allowing gold nanoparticles to bind to the cell membrane, nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapor nanobubbles (VNBs) that can emerge around the AuNPs. Macromolecules in the surrounding cell medium can then diffuse through the pores directly into the cytoplasm. Here we present a systematic evaluation of both photoporation mechanisms in terms of cytotoxicity, cell loading, and siRNA transfection efficiency. We find that the delivery of macromolecules under conditions of VNBs is much more efficient than direct photothermal disturbance of the plasma membrane without any noticeable cytotoxic effect. Interestingly, by tuning the laser energy, the pore size could be changed, allowing control of the amount and size of molecules that are delivered in the cytoplasm. As only a single nanosecond laser pulse is required, we conclude that VNBs are an interesting photoporation mechanism that may prove very useful for efficient high-throughput macromolecular delivery in live cells.
Keywords
MEMBRANE DISRUPTION, DRUG-DELIVERY, MAMMALIAN-CELLS, GENE-TRANSFER, CANCER-CELLS, SIZE-REDUCTION, TRANSFECTION, MICROINJECTION, DNA, siRNA, knockdown efficiency, intracellular delivery, photoporation, gold nanoparticles, vapor nanobubbles, FEMTOSECOND LASER

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Citation

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Chicago
Xiong, Ranhua, Koen Raemdonck, Karen Peynshaert, Ine Lentacker, Ine De Cock, Jo Demeester, Stefaan De Smedt, Andre Skirtach, and Kevin Braeckmans. 2014. “Comparison of Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Photoporation: Vapor Nanobubbles Outperform Direct Heating for Delivering Macromolecules in Live Cells.” Acs Nano 8 (6): 6288–6296.
APA
Xiong, R., Raemdonck, K., Peynshaert, K., Lentacker, I., De Cock, I., Demeester, J., De Smedt, S., et al. (2014). Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells. ACS NANO, 8(6), 6288–6296.
Vancouver
1.
Xiong R, Raemdonck K, Peynshaert K, Lentacker I, De Cock I, Demeester J, et al. Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells. ACS NANO. 2014;8(6):6288–96.
MLA
Xiong, Ranhua, Koen Raemdonck, Karen Peynshaert, et al. “Comparison of Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Photoporation: Vapor Nanobubbles Outperform Direct Heating for Delivering Macromolecules in Live Cells.” ACS NANO 8.6 (2014): 6288–6296. Print.
@article{5684510,
  abstract     = {There is a great interest in delivering macromolecular agents into living cells for therapeutic purposes, such as siRNA for gene silencing. Although substantial effort has gone into designing nonviral nanocarriers for delivering macromolecules into cells, translocation of the therapeutic molecules from the endosomes after endocytosis into the cytoplasm remains a major bottleneck. Laser-induced photoporation, especially in combination with gold nanoparticles, is an alternative physical method that is receiving increasing attention for delivering macromolecules in cells. By allowing gold nanoparticles to bind to the cell membrane, nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapor nanobubbles (VNBs) that can emerge around the AuNPs. Macromolecules in the surrounding cell medium can then diffuse through the pores directly into the cytoplasm. Here we present a systematic evaluation of both photoporation mechanisms in terms of cytotoxicity, cell loading, and siRNA transfection efficiency. We find that the delivery of macromolecules under conditions of VNBs is much more efficient than direct photothermal disturbance of the plasma membrane without any noticeable cytotoxic effect. Interestingly, by tuning the laser energy, the pore size could be changed, allowing control of the amount and size of molecules that are delivered in the cytoplasm. As only a single nanosecond laser pulse is required, we conclude that VNBs are an interesting photoporation mechanism that may prove very useful for efficient high-throughput macromolecular delivery in live cells.},
  author       = {Xiong, Ranhua and Raemdonck, Koen and Peynshaert, Karen and Lentacker, Ine and De Cock, Ine and Demeester, Jo and De Smedt, Stefaan and Skirtach, Andre and Braeckmans, Kevin},
  issn         = {1936-0851},
  journal      = {ACS NANO},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {6288--6296},
  title        = {Comparison of gold nanoparticle mediated photoporation: vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn5017742},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2014},
}

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