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Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns

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Abstract
Purpose: This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP. Methods: We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m.s(-1)), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N.cm(-2)), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate. Results: The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82%) at 3.2 m.s(-1) to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54%) at 6.2 m.s(-1). Approximately 44% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns. Conclusions: The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45% of the runners made one or even two "transitions'' toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.
Keywords
rearfoot strike, midfoot strike, Center of Pressure, Foot Strike Pattern, Strike Index, MECHANICS, PERFORMANCE, HEEL, FORCES, ECONOMY, IMPACT, BAREFOOT, SHOD RUNNERS, STRIKE PATTERNS, MIDSOLE HARDNESS, loading rate

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Chicago
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Edward C Frederick, and Dirk De Clercq. 2014. “Relationship Between Running Speed and Initial Foot Contact Patterns.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 46 (8): 1595–1603.
APA
Breine, B., Malcolm, P., Frederick, E. C., & De Clercq, D. (2014). Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, 46(8), 1595–1603.
Vancouver
1.
Breine B, Malcolm P, Frederick EC, De Clercq D. Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns. MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE. 2014;46(8):1595–603.
MLA
Breine, Bastiaan, Philippe Malcolm, Edward C Frederick, et al. “Relationship Between Running Speed and Initial Foot Contact Patterns.” MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE 46.8 (2014): 1595–1603. Print.
@article{5684464,
  abstract     = {Purpose: This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP.
Methods: We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m.s(-1)), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N.cm(-2)), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate.
Results: The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82\%) at 3.2 m.s(-1) to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46\%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54\%) at 6.2 m.s(-1). Approximately 44\% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns.
Conclusions: The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45\% of the runners made one or even two {\textacutedbl}transitions'' toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3\% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52\% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.},
  author       = {Breine, Bastiaan and Malcolm, Philippe and Frederick, Edward C and De Clercq, Dirk},
  issn         = {0195-9131},
  journal      = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1595--1603},
  title        = {Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000267},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2014},
}

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