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Abstract
As Van der Ploeg has argued, the re-emergence of twenty-first-century peasantries follows the same historical patterns of survival and autonomy. In Latin America's process of brutal peripheralization, peasantries adapted to encroaching processes of commodification, while in China the implosion of rural societies foreshadowed the painful process of an indirect incorporation. In the western European core, peasant societies crumbled and were absorbed by "modernized" economic and political structures. The disappearance of peasantries in Europe, the reconfiguration of rural societies in China, and the struggle to formulate new peasant responses to peripheral positions in Latin America are all part of the changing global geo-system of the early twenty-first century. The sixteenth century marked the beginning of fundamental divergences in the development paths. On the eve of the sixteenth century Andean peoples find a polycentric world with thriving agrarian civilizations all around the globe, from East Asia, India, the Middle East, and Europe to West Africa and Central and South America.
Keywords
Peasantries, World-System

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MLA
Vanhaute, Eric, et al. “Peasantries.” The World Is out of Joint : World-Historical Interpretations of Continuing Polarizations, edited by Immanuel Wallerstein, Paradigm Publishers, 2014, pp. 55–68, doi:10.4324/9781315631004-5.
APA
Vanhaute, E., Cottyn, H., & Wang, Y. (2014). Peasantries. In I. Wallerstein (Ed.), The world is out of joint : world-historical interpretations of continuing polarizations (pp. 55–68). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315631004-5
Chicago author-date
Vanhaute, Eric, Hanne Cottyn, and Yang Wang. 2014. “Peasantries.” In The World Is out of Joint : World-Historical Interpretations of Continuing Polarizations, edited by Immanuel Wallerstein, 55–68. Paradigm Publishers. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315631004-5.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vanhaute, Eric, Hanne Cottyn, and Yang Wang. 2014. “Peasantries.” In The World Is out of Joint : World-Historical Interpretations of Continuing Polarizations, ed by. Immanuel Wallerstein, 55–68. Paradigm Publishers. doi:10.4324/9781315631004-5.
Vancouver
1.
Vanhaute E, Cottyn H, Wang Y. Peasantries. In: Wallerstein I, editor. The world is out of joint : world-historical interpretations of continuing polarizations. Paradigm Publishers; 2014. p. 55–68.
IEEE
[1]
E. Vanhaute, H. Cottyn, and Y. Wang, “Peasantries,” in The world is out of joint : world-historical interpretations of continuing polarizations, I. Wallerstein, Ed. Paradigm Publishers, 2014, pp. 55–68.
@incollection{5661863,
  abstract     = {{As Van der Ploeg has argued, the re-emergence of twenty-first-century peasantries follows the same historical patterns of survival and autonomy. In Latin America's process of brutal peripheralization, peasantries adapted to encroaching processes of commodification, while in China the implosion of rural societies foreshadowed the painful process of an indirect incorporation. In the western European core, peasant societies crumbled and were absorbed by "modernized" economic and political structures. The disappearance of peasantries in Europe, the reconfiguration of rural societies in China, and the struggle to formulate new peasant responses to peripheral positions in Latin America are all part of the changing global geo-system of the early twenty-first century. The sixteenth century marked the beginning of fundamental divergences in the development paths. On the eve of the sixteenth century Andean peoples find a polycentric world with thriving agrarian civilizations all around the globe, from East Asia, India, the Middle East, and Europe to West Africa and Central and South America.}},
  author       = {{Vanhaute, Eric and Cottyn, Hanne and Wang, Yang}},
  booktitle    = {{The world is out of joint : world-historical interpretations of continuing polarizations}},
  editor       = {{Wallerstein, Immanuel}},
  isbn         = {{9781612057170}},
  keywords     = {{Peasantries,World-System}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{55--68}},
  publisher    = {{Paradigm Publishers}},
  title        = {{Peasantries}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315631004-5}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}

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