Advanced search
1 file | 239.85 KB Add to list

Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood

(2014) THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING. 36(2). p.252-256
Author
Organization
Project
DRUID
Abstract
Background: Analysis of samples of oral fluid (mixed saliva) is increasingly being used to detect recent drug use. The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability of testing oral fluid as a biomarker for the presence of 4 benzodiazepines in blood and its possible application in clinical settings and in research on drug use. Methods: Paired samples of oral fluid and blood from 4080 individuals in 4 European countries were collected and analyzed for benzodiazepines using gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection. Results: Concentration data for the 4 most commonly detected benzodiazepines were studied: alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam. Large variations in oral fluid to blood concentration ratios were observed for the studied benzodiazepines. The interquartile ranges for the oral fluid to blood concentrations ratios corresponded to 88%-197% of the median values. Selecting cutoff concentrations in oral fluid that gave the best accuracy in identifying individuals with benzodiazepine concentrations in blood above chosen thresholds produced accuracies of 74%-85% and the fraction of false negatives was 9%-23%. Conclusions: The concentration of the 4 studied benzodiazepines in oral fluid can neither be used to accurately estimate the concentrations in blood nor to correctly identify patients with blood drug concentrations below or above recommended therapeutic levels. When using analytical methods with limits of quantitation corresponding to concentrations less than 0.5 ng/mL in undiluted oral fluid, it may be used to confirm a recent intake of benzodiazepines. However, it is likely that some false negatives may occur.
Keywords
PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA, DRUGS, SALIVA, ABUSE, STABILITY, DIAZEPAM, DRIVERS, WHOLE-BLOOD, nordiazepam, diazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, oral fluid, COLLECTION METHODS

Downloads

  • (...).pdf
    • full text
    • |
    • UGent only
    • |
    • PDF
    • |
    • 239.85 KB

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Gjerde, Hallvard, Kaarina Langel, Donata Favretto, et al. “Detection of 4 Benzodiazepines in Oral Fluid as Biomarker for Presence in Blood.” THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING 36.2 (2014): 252–256. Print.
APA
Gjerde, Hallvard, Langel, K., Favretto, D., & Verstraete, A. (2014). Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING, 36(2), 252–256.
Chicago author-date
Gjerde, Hallvard, Kaarina Langel, Donata Favretto, and Alain Verstraete. 2014. “Detection of 4 Benzodiazepines in Oral Fluid as Biomarker for Presence in Blood.” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 36 (2): 252–256.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gjerde, Hallvard, Kaarina Langel, Donata Favretto, and Alain Verstraete. 2014. “Detection of 4 Benzodiazepines in Oral Fluid as Biomarker for Presence in Blood.” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 36 (2): 252–256.
Vancouver
1.
Gjerde H, Langel K, Favretto D, Verstraete A. Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING. 2014;36(2):252–6.
IEEE
[1]
H. Gjerde, K. Langel, D. Favretto, and A. Verstraete, “Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood,” THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 252–256, 2014.
@article{5648024,
  abstract     = {Background: Analysis of samples of oral fluid (mixed saliva) is increasingly being used to detect recent drug use. The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability of testing oral fluid as a biomarker for the presence of 4 benzodiazepines in blood and its possible application in clinical settings and in research on drug use.
Methods: Paired samples of oral fluid and blood from 4080 individuals in 4 European countries were collected and analyzed for benzodiazepines using gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection.
Results: Concentration data for the 4 most commonly detected benzodiazepines were studied: alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam. Large variations in oral fluid to blood concentration ratios were observed for the studied benzodiazepines. The interquartile ranges for the oral fluid to blood concentrations ratios corresponded to 88%-197% of the median values. Selecting cutoff concentrations in oral fluid that gave the best accuracy in identifying individuals with benzodiazepine concentrations in blood above chosen thresholds produced accuracies of 74%-85% and the fraction of false negatives was 9%-23%.
Conclusions: The concentration of the 4 studied benzodiazepines in oral fluid can neither be used to accurately estimate the concentrations in blood nor to correctly identify patients with blood drug concentrations below or above recommended therapeutic levels. When using analytical methods with limits of quantitation corresponding to concentrations less than 0.5 ng/mL in undiluted oral fluid, it may be used to confirm a recent intake of benzodiazepines. However, it is likely that some false negatives may occur.},
  author       = {Gjerde, Hallvard and Langel, Kaarina and Favretto, Donata and Verstraete, Alain},
  issn         = {0163-4356},
  journal      = {THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING},
  keywords     = {PHARMACOKINETICS,PLASMA,DRUGS,SALIVA,ABUSE,STABILITY,DIAZEPAM,DRIVERS,WHOLE-BLOOD,nordiazepam,diazepam,clonazepam,alprazolam,oral fluid,COLLECTION METHODS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {252--256},
  title        = {Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e3182a3ab42},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2014},
}

Altmetric
View in Altmetric
Web of Science
Times cited: