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Post-treatment complications of soft tissue tumours

L Shapeero, Pieter De Visschere (UGent) , Koenraad Verstraete (UGent) , Bart Poffyn (UGent) , Ramses Forsyth (UGent) , Gwen Sys (UGent) and Dirk Uyttendaele (UGent)
(2009) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY. 69(2). p.209-221
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Abstract
Purpose: To identify local and distant complications of patients with soft tissue tumours and evaluate their relationships to types of therapy. Methods and materials: Fifty-one patients (29 males and 22 females, ages 14-80 years) with 34 malignant and 17 benign soft tissue tumours were evaluated for local and distant complications after resection or amputation only (26 patients) or after the addition of radiotherapy (25 patients: 17 patients had external beam therapy, 7 patients had external beam therapy and brachytherapy, and one patient had extracorporeal irradiation and rei m plantation). Duration of follow-up averaged 3.75 years for malignant tumours and 2.79 years for benign tumours. Follow-up studies included radiography, T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), computed tomography for thoracic and abdominal metastases, and 3-phase technetium-99m-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate scintigraphy for bone metastases. Results: Recurrent tumours were 2.2 times more frequent in patients who had undergone their initial resection at an outside hospital as compared with those first treated at the university hospital. Nine of 11 recurrences occurred after marginal surgery. Metastases from soft tissue sarcomas, most commonly to lung (nine patients) and to bone and muscle (five patients), showed no specific relationship to type of therapy. DCE-MRI differentiated rapidly enhancing soft tissue recurrences (11 patients) and residual tumours (6 patients) from slowly enhancing muscle inflammation, and non-enhancing fibrosis and seromas that usually did not enhance. Seromas developed in 76% of patients who had postoperative radiation therapy and in 7.7% of patients who had only surgery. Subcutaneous and cutaneous oedema and muscle inflammation was at least four times more frequent after adjunct radiotherapy than after resection alone. Irrespective of the type of treatment, inflammatory changes in muscle and subcutaneous and cutaneous tissue and the majority of seromas were evident at the first follow-up study. Although seromas after resection and external beam therapy resolved with time, seromas after additional brachytherapy persisted. Inflammatory changes in muscle and cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue after resection alone disappeared by the second follow-up study, whereas these changes after radiotherapy resolved months to years after treatment. Fourteen of 51 patients showed MR findings of chronic muscular atrophy, predominantly located in the lower extremity. Heterotopic ossification was seen in three patients after resection and amputation without radiotherapy. Except for one patient with aggressive fibromatosis, bone and nerve complications occurred in patients with soft tissue malignancy. Twelve patients had osteoporosis. Six patients sustained fractures in irradiated osteoporotic bone of the lower extremity, and one patient had a vertebral fracture in radiographically normal but irradiated bone. In addition, one patient was found to have a medullary infarct in an irradiated femur. In nerve entrapment, DCE-MRI demonstrated the rapidly enhancing recurrent turnout or non-enhancing fibrosis surrounding the slowly enhancing nerve. T1- and T2-weighted MR images displayed the acute and chronic sequelae of nerve entrapment and nerve transection with denervation as T2-hyperintense acute muscle atrophy or T1-hypertense chronic fatty muscular atrophy with decrease in muscle volume. Conclusion: This study suggests a possible relationship between types of treatment of soft tissue tumours and subsequent complications. Postoperative radiotherapy was associated with a significant number of patients with seromas, muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous inflammation, and fractures. Incomplete or difficult surgery resulted in residual or recurrent tumours and heterotopic ossification. Muscle atrophy and nerve entrapment were related to both treatments (resection alone or radiotherapy after resection). Diligent follow-up of patients with soft tissue tumours with recognition of these complications and their differentiation from recurrent or residual turnout can help guide clinical care and may negate the need for surgery when benign disease is defined.

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Chicago
Shapeero, L, Pieter De Visschere, Koenraad Verstraete, Bart Poffyn, Ramses Forsyth, Gwen Sys, and Dirk Uyttendaele. 2009. “Post-treatment Complications of Soft Tissue Tumours.” European Journal of Radiology 69 (2): 209–221.
APA
Shapeero, L, De Visschere, P., Verstraete, K., Poffyn, B., Forsyth, R., Sys, G., & Uyttendaele, D. (2009). Post-treatment complications of soft tissue tumours. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY, 69(2), 209–221.
Vancouver
1.
Shapeero L, De Visschere P, Verstraete K, Poffyn B, Forsyth R, Sys G, et al. Post-treatment complications of soft tissue tumours. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY. 2009;69(2):209–21.
MLA
Shapeero, L, Pieter De Visschere, Koenraad Verstraete, et al. “Post-treatment Complications of Soft Tissue Tumours.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY 69.2 (2009): 209–221. Print.
@article{534241,
  abstract     = {Purpose: To identify local and distant complications of patients with soft tissue tumours and evaluate their relationships to types of therapy.
Methods and materials: Fifty-one patients (29 males and 22 females, ages 14-80 years) with 34 malignant and 17 benign soft tissue tumours were evaluated for local and distant complications after resection or amputation only (26 patients) or after the addition of radiotherapy (25 patients: 17 patients had external beam therapy, 7 patients had external beam therapy and brachytherapy, and one patient had extracorporeal irradiation and rei m plantation). Duration of follow-up averaged 3.75 years for malignant tumours and 2.79 years for benign tumours. Follow-up studies included radiography, T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), computed tomography for thoracic and abdominal metastases, and 3-phase technetium-99m-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate scintigraphy for bone metastases.

Results: Recurrent tumours were 2.2 times more frequent in patients who had undergone their initial resection at an outside hospital as compared with those first treated at the university hospital. Nine of 11 recurrences occurred after marginal surgery. Metastases from soft tissue sarcomas, most commonly to lung (nine patients) and to bone and muscle (five patients), showed no specific relationship to type of therapy. DCE-MRI differentiated rapidly enhancing soft tissue recurrences (11 patients) and residual tumours (6 patients) from slowly enhancing muscle inflammation, and non-enhancing fibrosis and seromas that usually did not enhance. Seromas developed in 76\% of patients who had postoperative radiation therapy and in 7.7\% of patients who had only surgery. Subcutaneous and cutaneous oedema and muscle inflammation was at least four times more frequent after adjunct radiotherapy than after resection alone. Irrespective of the type of treatment, inflammatory changes in muscle and subcutaneous and cutaneous tissue and the majority of seromas were evident at the first follow-up study. Although seromas after resection and external beam therapy resolved with time, seromas after additional brachytherapy persisted. Inflammatory changes in muscle and cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue after resection alone disappeared by the second follow-up study, whereas these changes after radiotherapy resolved months to years after treatment. Fourteen of 51 patients showed MR findings of chronic muscular atrophy, predominantly located in the lower extremity. Heterotopic ossification was seen in three patients after resection and amputation without radiotherapy. Except for one patient with aggressive fibromatosis, bone and nerve complications occurred in patients with soft tissue malignancy. Twelve patients had osteoporosis. Six patients sustained fractures in irradiated osteoporotic bone of the lower extremity, and one patient had a vertebral fracture in radiographically normal but irradiated bone. In addition, one patient was found to have a medullary infarct in an irradiated femur. In nerve entrapment, DCE-MRI demonstrated the rapidly enhancing recurrent turnout or non-enhancing fibrosis surrounding the slowly enhancing nerve. T1- and T2-weighted MR images displayed the acute and chronic sequelae of nerve entrapment and nerve transection with denervation as T2-hyperintense acute muscle atrophy or T1-hypertense chronic fatty muscular atrophy with decrease in muscle volume.

Conclusion: This study suggests a possible relationship between types of treatment of soft tissue tumours and subsequent complications. Postoperative radiotherapy was associated with a significant number of patients with seromas, muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous inflammation, and fractures. Incomplete or difficult surgery resulted in residual or recurrent tumours and heterotopic ossification. Muscle atrophy and nerve entrapment were related to both treatments (resection alone or radiotherapy after resection). Diligent follow-up of patients with soft tissue tumours with recognition of these complications and their differentiation from recurrent or residual turnout can help guide clinical care and may negate the need for surgery when benign disease is defined.},
  author       = {Shapeero, L and De Visschere, Pieter and Verstraete, Koenraad and Poffyn, Bart and Forsyth, Ramses and Sys, Gwen and Uyttendaele, Dirk},
  issn         = {0720-048X},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {209--221},
  title        = {Post-treatment complications of soft tissue tumours},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.10.008},
  volume       = {69},
  year         = {2009},
}

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