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Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

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Abstract
A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method in positive ion chemical ionization mode in combination with a solid phase extraction was optimized for new-generation antidepressants and their metabolites in postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair. Twelve antidepressants and their active metabolites (i.e., mirtazapine, viloxazine, venlafaxine, citalopram, mianserin, reboxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, maprotiline, melitracen, paroxetine, desmethylfluoxetine, desmethylmianserin, desmethylmirtazapine, desmethylsertraline, desmethylmaprotiline, desmethylcitalopram, and didesmethylcitalopram) could be quantified. In this article, in addition to the validation of the GC-MS method, four postmortem cases are discussed to demonstrate the usefulness of the described method in forensic toxicology. In these cases, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, and trazodone in combination with their active metabolites were quantified. Blood concentrations ranged from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations, while brain to plasma ratios ranged from 0.8 to 17. Hair concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 ng/mg depending on the compound and hair segment.
Keywords
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and metabolites, Hair analysis, GC-MS, Postmortem toxicology, Brain analysis, NEW-GENERATION ANTIDEPRESSANTS, HUMAN SCALP HAIR, ACTIVE METABOLITES, DRUGS, INTOXICATION, MOCLOBEMIDE, IONIZATION, FLUOXETINE, CITALOPRAM, TRAZODONE

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MLA
Wille, Sarah MR, Els De Letter, Michel Piette, et al. “Determination of Antidepressants in Human Postmortem Blood, Brain Tissue, and Hair Using Gas Chromatography–mass Spectrometry.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE 123.6 (2009): 451–458. Print.
APA
Wille, S. M., De Letter, E., Piette, M., Van Overschelde, L. K., Van Peteghem, C., & Lambert, W. (2009). Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, 123(6), 451–458.
Chicago author-date
Wille, Sarah MR, Els De Letter, Michel Piette, Lien K Van Overschelde, Carlos Van Peteghem, and Willy Lambert. 2009. “Determination of Antidepressants in Human Postmortem Blood, Brain Tissue, and Hair Using Gas Chromatography–mass Spectrometry.” International Journal of Legal Medicine 123 (6): 451–458.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wille, Sarah MR, Els De Letter, Michel Piette, Lien K Van Overschelde, Carlos Van Peteghem, and Willy Lambert. 2009. “Determination of Antidepressants in Human Postmortem Blood, Brain Tissue, and Hair Using Gas Chromatography–mass Spectrometry.” International Journal of Legal Medicine 123 (6): 451–458.
Vancouver
1.
Wille SM, De Letter E, Piette M, Van Overschelde LK, Van Peteghem C, Lambert W. Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE. 2009;123(6):451–8.
IEEE
[1]
S. M. Wille, E. De Letter, M. Piette, L. K. Van Overschelde, C. Van Peteghem, and W. Lambert, “Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 451–458, 2009.
@article{517620,
  abstract     = {A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method in positive ion chemical ionization mode in combination with a solid phase extraction was optimized for new-generation antidepressants and their metabolites in postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair. Twelve antidepressants and their active metabolites (i.e., mirtazapine, viloxazine, venlafaxine, citalopram, mianserin, reboxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, maprotiline, melitracen, paroxetine, desmethylfluoxetine, desmethylmianserin, desmethylmirtazapine, desmethylsertraline, desmethylmaprotiline, desmethylcitalopram, and didesmethylcitalopram) could be quantified. In this article, in addition to the validation of the GC-MS method, four postmortem cases are discussed to demonstrate the usefulness of the described method in forensic toxicology. In these cases, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, and trazodone in combination with their active metabolites were quantified. Blood concentrations ranged from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations, while brain to plasma ratios ranged from 0.8 to 17. Hair concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.5 ng/mg depending on the compound and hair segment.},
  author       = {Wille, Sarah MR and De Letter, Els and Piette, Michel and Van Overschelde, Lien K and Van Peteghem, Carlos and Lambert, Willy},
  issn         = {0937-9827},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and metabolites,Hair analysis,GC-MS,Postmortem toxicology,Brain analysis,NEW-GENERATION ANTIDEPRESSANTS,HUMAN SCALP HAIR,ACTIVE METABOLITES,DRUGS,INTOXICATION,MOCLOBEMIDE,IONIZATION,FLUOXETINE,CITALOPRAM,TRAZODONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {451--458},
  title        = {Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-008-0287-6},
  volume       = {123},
  year         = {2009},
}

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