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FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast

(2008) CELL. 135(4). p.726-737
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Abstract
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as an archetype of eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that S. cerevisiae is also a model for the evolution of cooperative behavior by revisiting flocculation, a self-adherence phenotype lacking in most laboratory strains. Expression of the gene FLO1 in the laboratory strain S288C restores flocculation, an altered physiological state, reminiscent of bacterial biofilms. Flocculation protects the FLO1 expressing cells from multiple stresses, including antimicrobials and ethanol. Furthermore, FLO1(+) cells avoid exploitation by nonexpressing flo1 cells by self/non-self recognition: FLO1(+) cells preferentially stick to one another, regardless of genetic relatedness across the rest of the genome. Flocculation, therefore, is driven by one of a few known "green beard genes,'' which direct cooperation toward other carriers of the same gene. Moreover, FLO1 is highly variable among strains both in expression and in sequence, suggesting that flocculation in S. cerevisiae is a dynamic, rapidly evolving social trait.
Keywords
CELL-SURFACE, EVOLUTION, SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE, ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, RECOGNITION, EXPRESSION, RESISTANCE, CANDIDA, MICROORGANISMS, FLOCCULATION

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Citation

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Chicago
Smukalla, Scott, Marina Caldara, Nathalie Pochet, Anne Beauvais, Stephanie Guadagnini, Chen Yan, Marcelo D Vinces, et al. 2008. “FLO1 Is a Variable Green Beard Gene That Drives Biofilm-like Cooperation in Budding Yeast.” Cell 135 (4): 726–737.
APA
Smukalla, S., Caldara, M., Pochet, N., Beauvais, A., Guadagnini, S., Yan, C., Vinces, M. D., et al. (2008). FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast. CELL, 135(4), 726–737.
Vancouver
1.
Smukalla S, Caldara M, Pochet N, Beauvais A, Guadagnini S, Yan C, et al. FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast. CELL. 2008;135(4):726–37.
MLA
Smukalla, Scott, Marina Caldara, Nathalie Pochet, et al. “FLO1 Is a Variable Green Beard Gene That Drives Biofilm-like Cooperation in Budding Yeast.” CELL 135.4 (2008): 726–737. Print.
@article{506227,
  abstract     = {The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as an archetype of eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that S. cerevisiae is also a model for the evolution of cooperative behavior by revisiting flocculation, a self-adherence phenotype lacking in most laboratory strains. Expression of the gene FLO1 in the laboratory strain S288C restores flocculation, an altered physiological state, reminiscent of bacterial biofilms. Flocculation protects the FLO1 expressing cells from multiple stresses, including antimicrobials and ethanol. Furthermore, FLO1(+) cells avoid exploitation by nonexpressing flo1 cells by self/non-self recognition: FLO1(+) cells preferentially stick to one another, regardless of genetic relatedness across the rest of the genome. Flocculation, therefore, is driven by one of a few known {\textacutedbl}green beard genes,'' which direct cooperation toward other carriers of the same gene. Moreover, FLO1 is highly variable among strains both in expression and in sequence, suggesting that flocculation in S. cerevisiae is a dynamic, rapidly evolving social trait.},
  author       = {Smukalla, Scott and Caldara, Marina and Pochet, Nathalie and Beauvais, Anne and Guadagnini, Stephanie and Yan, Chen and Vinces, Marcelo D and Jansen, An and Prevost, Marie Christine and Latg{\'e}, Jean-Paul and Fink, Gerald R and Foster, Kevin R and Verstrepen, Kevin J},
  issn         = {0092-8674},
  journal      = {CELL},
  keyword      = {CELL-SURFACE,EVOLUTION,SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE,ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS,RECOGNITION,EXPRESSION,RESISTANCE,CANDIDA,MICROORGANISMS,FLOCCULATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {726--737},
  title        = {FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.037},
  volume       = {135},
  year         = {2008},
}

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