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Importance of a close reflection towards feeding management in ornithological collections.

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Organization
Abstract
Objectives: In ornithological collections, multi-component seed diets are often stored in large containers which are replenished before completely emptied. However, different-sized particles tend to segregate when stored, whereby small seeds lower to the bottom, larger seeds remaining on top. Hence, intended and actually offered ration differ in content. Furthermore, parrots de-husk seeds prior to ingestion. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional consequences of these factors. Materials and Methods: A 100 g sub-sample was taken from a large feed storage container filled with a parrot seed mixture. All seed types were separated, weighed, relative proportions calculated and compared to the intended composition. Next, nutrient contents of both sub-sample and intended mixture were calculated, both for seeds in toto and seed kernels. Results: The most detrimental nutritional effect of segregation is a steep decline in proportion of oyster shells and vitamin-aminoacid-mineral pellets (VAM supplements) which vastly lowers Ca:P-ratio. Next to this, the proportion of oilseeds rises from 24% to 33.5%, whereas carbohydrate-rich seeds lower from 66% to 59.4%. Finally, de-husking seeds leads to an important increase in fat and protein content on account of a decline in crude fibre content (table 1). Conclusions: Although nutritionists attempt to formulate diets in order to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of diets can be deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Due to lack of repetitions, the described nutritional effects of segregation in stored multi-component seed diets are only to be interpreted as an indication of magnitude.

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MLA
Kalmar, Isabelle, Bjorn Geeroms, Marcellus Bürkle, et al. “Importance of a Close Reflection Towards Feeding Management in Ornithological Collections.” Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA. 2008. Print.
APA
Kalmar, I., Geeroms, B., Bürkle, M., Reinschmidt, M., Waugh, D., Werquin, G., & Janssens, G. (2008). Importance of a close reflection towards feeding management in ornithological collections. Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA. Presented at the Annual Conference of EAZA.
Chicago author-date
Kalmar, Isabelle, Bjorn Geeroms, Marcellus Bürkle, Mattias Reinschmidt, David Waugh, Guy Werquin, and Geert Janssens. 2008. “Importance of a Close Reflection Towards Feeding Management in Ornithological Collections.” In Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kalmar, Isabelle, Bjorn Geeroms, Marcellus Bürkle, Mattias Reinschmidt, David Waugh, Guy Werquin, and Geert Janssens. 2008. “Importance of a Close Reflection Towards Feeding Management in Ornithological Collections.” In Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA.
Vancouver
1.
Kalmar I, Geeroms B, Bürkle M, Reinschmidt M, Waugh D, Werquin G, et al. Importance of a close reflection towards feeding management in ornithological collections. Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA. 2008.
IEEE
[1]
I. Kalmar et al., “Importance of a close reflection towards feeding management in ornithological collections.,” in Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA, Antwerpen, Belgium, 2008.
@inproceedings{445012,
  abstract     = {Objectives:
In ornithological collections, multi-component seed diets are often stored in large containers which are replenished before completely emptied. However, different-sized particles tend to segregate when stored, whereby small seeds lower to the bottom, larger seeds remaining on top. Hence, intended and actually offered ration differ in content. Furthermore, parrots de-husk seeds prior to ingestion. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional consequences of these factors.

Materials and Methods:
A 100 g sub-sample was taken from a large feed storage container filled with a parrot seed mixture. All seed types were separated, weighed, relative proportions calculated and compared to the intended composition. Next, nutrient contents of both sub-sample and intended mixture were calculated, both for seeds in toto and seed kernels.

Results:
The most detrimental nutritional effect of segregation is a steep decline in proportion of oyster shells and vitamin-aminoacid-mineral pellets (VAM supplements) which vastly lowers Ca:P-ratio. Next to this, the proportion of oilseeds rises from 24% to 33.5%, whereas carbohydrate-rich seeds lower from 66% to 59.4%. Finally, de-husking seeds leads to an important increase in fat and protein content on account of a decline in crude fibre content (table 1).
Conclusions:
Although nutritionists attempt to formulate diets in order to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of diets can be deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Due to lack of repetitions, the described nutritional effects of segregation in stored multi-component seed diets are only to be interpreted as an indication of magnitude.},
  author       = {Kalmar, Isabelle and Geeroms, Bjorn and Bürkle, Marcellus and Reinschmidt, Mattias and Waugh, David and Werquin, Guy and Janssens, Geert},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings Annual Conference of EAZA},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Antwerpen, Belgium},
  title        = {Importance of a close reflection towards feeding management in ornithological collections.},
  year         = {2008},
}