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Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids

Isabelle Sioen (UGent) , Stefaan De Henauw (UGent) , Wim Verbeke (UGent) , Frederik Verdonck (UGent) , Jan Willems and John Van Camp (UGent)
(2008) PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION. 11(11). p.1107-1116
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Organization
Abstract
Objectives: Dietary intake of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA in developed countries is low compared with recommendations. Fish is naturally rich in LC n-3 PUFA, but is also a dietary source of heavy metals and organic pollutants. We investigated whether the recommendation for LC n-3 PUFA could be reached through fish consumption, without exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury (MeHg) and the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of dioxin-like compounds. Also, the contribution of margarines enriched with LC n-3 PUFA was assessed. Design: Published nutrient and contaminant data were used in a probabilistic model to calculate the simultaneous nutrient and contaminant intake for different fish consumption scenarios. Results: The Belgian recommendation for EPA + DHA (0.3% of total energy intake) can be reached by consuming fatty fish a minimum of twice a week, or by varying between lean and fatty fish a minimum of three times a week. At this fish consumption level, MeHg intake is not an issue of toxicological concern. The intake of dioxin-like compounds approximates the TWI when consuming fatty fish more than twice a week, this being a potential toxicological risk because other food items also contribute to the weekly intake of dioxin-like compounds. Use of margarine enriched with LC n-3 PUFA can help to increase LC n-3 intake, on average by 159 mg/d. Conclusions: Combination of regular fish consumption (twice a week) with important contribution of fatty fish species, in combination with regular consumption of margarine enriched with EPA + DHA, can be advised to achieve the recommendation for LC n-3 intake.
Keywords
EXPOSURE, SEAFOOD, P-DIOXINS, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, DIETARY-INTAKE, HEALTH-BENEFITS, MARKET BASKET, FOOD SOURCES, n-3 fatty acids, RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS, Methylmercury, Dioxin-like compounds, Fish consumption, Dietary recommendations, PCBS

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MLA
Sioen, Isabelle, Stefaan De Henauw, Wim Verbeke, et al. “Fish Consumption Is a Safe Solution to Increase the Intake of Long-chain N-3 Fatty Acids.” PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 11.11 (2008): 1107–1116. Print.
APA
Sioen, I., De Henauw, S., Verbeke, W., Verdonck, F., Willems, J., & Van Camp, J. (2008). Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION, 11(11), 1107–1116.
Chicago author-date
Sioen, Isabelle, Stefaan De Henauw, Wim Verbeke, Frederik Verdonck, Jan Willems, and John Van Camp. 2008. “Fish Consumption Is a Safe Solution to Increase the Intake of Long-chain N-3 Fatty Acids.” Public Health Nutrition 11 (11): 1107–1116.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sioen, Isabelle, Stefaan De Henauw, Wim Verbeke, Frederik Verdonck, Jan Willems, and John Van Camp. 2008. “Fish Consumption Is a Safe Solution to Increase the Intake of Long-chain N-3 Fatty Acids.” Public Health Nutrition 11 (11): 1107–1116.
Vancouver
1.
Sioen I, De Henauw S, Verbeke W, Verdonck F, Willems J, Van Camp J. Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION. 2008;11(11):1107–16.
IEEE
[1]
I. Sioen, S. De Henauw, W. Verbeke, F. Verdonck, J. Willems, and J. Van Camp, “Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids,” PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1107–1116, 2008.
@article{444316,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Dietary intake of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA in developed countries is low compared with recommendations. Fish is naturally rich in LC n-3 PUFA, but is also a dietary source of heavy metals and organic pollutants. We investigated whether the recommendation for LC n-3 PUFA could be reached through fish consumption, without exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury (MeHg) and the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of dioxin-like compounds. Also, the contribution of margarines enriched with LC n-3 PUFA was assessed.
Design: Published nutrient and contaminant data were used in a probabilistic model to calculate the simultaneous nutrient and contaminant intake for different fish consumption scenarios.
Results: The Belgian recommendation for EPA + DHA (0.3% of total energy intake) can be reached by consuming fatty fish a minimum of twice a week, or by varying between lean and fatty fish a minimum of three times a week. At this fish consumption level, MeHg intake is not an issue of toxicological concern. The intake of dioxin-like compounds approximates the TWI when consuming fatty fish more than twice a week, this being a potential toxicological risk because other food items also contribute to the weekly intake of dioxin-like compounds. Use of margarine enriched with LC n-3 PUFA can help to increase LC n-3 intake, on average by 159 mg/d.
Conclusions: Combination of regular fish consumption (twice a week) with important contribution of fatty fish species, in combination with regular consumption of margarine enriched with EPA + DHA, can be advised to achieve the recommendation for LC n-3 intake.},
  author       = {Sioen, Isabelle and De Henauw, Stefaan and Verbeke, Wim and Verdonck, Frederik and Willems, Jan and Van Camp, John},
  issn         = {1368-9800},
  journal      = {PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION},
  keywords     = {EXPOSURE,SEAFOOD,P-DIOXINS,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,DIETARY-INTAKE,HEALTH-BENEFITS,MARKET BASKET,FOOD SOURCES,n-3 fatty acids,RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS,Methylmercury,Dioxin-like compounds,Fish consumption,Dietary recommendations,PCBS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1107--1116},
  title        = {Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980007001450},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2008},
}

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