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Using surface models to analyze and detect urban pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

Author
Organization
Abstract
One of the largest threats to cultural heritage is their rapidly changing surroundings. The Giza pyramid plateau (Egypt) is a prime example of this phenomenon, asitis threatened by the enormous urban expansion of Cairo over the last decades. Geographic data derived from satellite images is very important for documenting and detecting suchan expansion especially urbanareas without accurate cadaster and population statistics like Cairo. Remote sensing techniques have proven to be very useful to visualize and analyze urban sprawl and land use changes in two dimensions. However, the impact assessment of urban sprawl needs to be complemented with accurate elevation data, because this urban sprawl is not only limited to planimetric growth. To create this accurate elevation data, digital surface models (DSMs) from Corona (1970), Ikonos (2005) and GeoEye (2009 and 2011) images have been computed using photogrammetric software and ground control points. This work focuses first of all on a procedure to improve 2.5D change detection from satellite imagery in mainly informal areas. A pixel-wise subtraction is performed on the 2009 and 2011 DSMs resulting in an automated change detection workflow. The proposed workflow is validated in the Hada‘iq al-Ahram or Pyramid Gardens stretching west of the Giza Pyramid plateau. Based on statistical analyses of these change maps, it can be concluded that the proposed 2.5D change detection workflow using raster DSMs is the closest to reality. The resulting change maps for western Cairo do not only clarify the horizontal urban sprawl, but also the increase in building levels increase, i.e. the vertical urban expansion. Since horizon pollution is a major factor in heritage protection, a second focus is on the evolution of the view towards and from the famous pyramids during the last four decades. A viewshed analysis is performed on all DSMs resulting in change maps indicating the evolution throughout the past 40 years. With this work we proved that surface model s are very useful for analyzing urban pressure on cultural heritage sites and we hope that this work will be used in the protection and conservation of our world heritage. This abstract fit within the APLADYN project: a Belgian Science Policy project on anthropogenic and landscape dynamics in large fluvial systems.
Keywords
digital surface models, Cairo, Urban sprawl, change detection

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Hendrickx, Marijn, et al. “Using Surface Models to Analyze and Detect Urban Pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt.” Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of Abstracts, 2014.
APA
Hendrickx, M., Stal, C., De Laet, V., Verstraeten, G., & Goossens, R. (2014). Using surface models to analyze and detect urban pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt. In Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of abstracts. Warsaw, Poland.
Chicago author-date
Hendrickx, Marijn, Cornelis Stal, V De Laet, G Verstraeten, and Rudi Goossens. 2014. “Using Surface Models to Analyze and Detect Urban Pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt.” In Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of Abstracts.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hendrickx, Marijn, Cornelis Stal, V De Laet, G Verstraeten, and Rudi Goossens. 2014. “Using Surface Models to Analyze and Detect Urban Pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt.” In Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of Abstracts.
Vancouver
1.
Hendrickx M, Stal C, De Laet V, Verstraeten G, Goossens R. Using surface models to analyze and detect urban pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt. In: Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of abstracts. 2014.
IEEE
[1]
M. Hendrickx, C. Stal, V. De Laet, G. Verstraeten, and R. Goossens, “Using surface models to analyze and detect urban pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt,” in Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of abstracts, Warsaw, Poland, 2014.
@inproceedings{4441220,
  abstract     = {{One of the largest threats to cultural heritage is their rapidly changing surroundings. The Giza pyramid plateau (Egypt) is a prime example of this phenomenon, asitis threatened by the enormous urban expansion of Cairo over the last decades. Geographic data derived from satellite images is very important for documenting and detecting suchan expansion especially urbanareas without accurate cadaster and population statistics like Cairo. Remote sensing techniques have proven to be very useful to visualize and analyze urban sprawl and land use changes in two dimensions. However, the impact assessment of urban sprawl needs to be complemented with accurate elevation data, because this urban sprawl is not only limited to planimetric growth. To create this accurate elevation data, digital surface models (DSMs) from Corona (1970), Ikonos (2005) and GeoEye (2009 and 2011) images have been computed using photogrammetric software and ground control points. This work focuses first of all on a procedure to improve 2.5D change detection from satellite imagery in mainly informal areas. A pixel-wise subtraction is performed on the 2009 and 2011 DSMs resulting in an automated change detection workflow. The proposed workflow is validated in the Hada‘iq al-Ahram or Pyramid Gardens stretching west of the Giza Pyramid plateau. Based on statistical analyses of these change maps, it can be concluded that the proposed 2.5D change detection workflow using raster DSMs is the closest to reality. The resulting change maps for western Cairo do not only clarify the horizontal urban sprawl, but also the increase in building levels increase, i.e. the vertical urban expansion. Since horizon pollution is a major factor in heritage protection, a second focus is on the evolution of the view towards and from the famous pyramids during the last four decades. A viewshed analysis is performed on all DSMs resulting in change maps indicating the evolution throughout the past 40 years. With this work we proved that surface model s are very useful for analyzing urban pressure on cultural heritage sites and we hope that this work will be used in the protection and conservation of our world heritage. This abstract fit within the APLADYN project: a Belgian Science Policy project on anthropogenic and landscape dynamics in large fluvial systems.}},
  author       = {{Hendrickx, Marijn and Stal, Cornelis and De Laet, V and Verstraeten, G and Goossens, Rudi}},
  booktitle    = {{Earsel, 34th Symposium, Book of abstracts}},
  keywords     = {{digital surface models,Cairo,Urban sprawl,change detection}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Warsaw, Poland}},
  title        = {{Using surface models to analyze and detect urban pressure around the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}